TRANSPARENCY OF PUBLIC SERVICE IN ARCTIC REGION: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSES
The paper presents the results of a study conducted in 2018 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. The big part of the territory of this region is located in the Arctic, which has a low population density and large distances between settlements, which increases the importance of public consent for the effectiveness of public administration. The aim of the study was to determine the level of transparency of public authorities in their interaction with civil society. The authors did a corpus-based content analysis of administrative regulations and conduct the questionnaire survey (N=439). It has been established that Russian civil society has a request to participate in the adoption of state decisions, but at the same time, citizens are not ready to fully implement public control.
The oil and gas industry growth has increased rapidly in the Barents Sea during the last few years. The Arctic zone is considered to be a relatively clean area. However, there is a certain number of “hot spots” in the Arctic due to the activities of extracting companies.
We study the problems connected with the production of these two types of fossil fuel and carried out simulation model. This model shows the results of oil or gas flowing accident related to drilling complex, taking into account sea currents, winds, temperature and ice. By using this model, we can highlight areas in the Barents Sea with the highest potential of the disaster so that preventive measures could be taken. In addition, this model helps to organize elimination of fossil fuel flowing consequences.
The Russian Far North is immensely rich in resources, both energy and other resources, and is also one of the least developed regions of Russia. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the region. It examines resource issues and the related environmental problems, considers the Arctic and the problems of sea routes, maritime boundaries and military build-up, assesses economic development, and considers the ethnic peoples of the region and also cultural and artistic subjects. Overall, the book provides a rich appraisal of how the region is likely to develop in future.
This chapter provides a synopsis of the economic dimensions of the Barents Sea Region. It discusses the economic value of different resources, including fisheries and aquaculture, oil and gas development, mining, and tourism, as well as the economic potential of other resources like wave energy and genetic resources in both the Norwegian and Russian components of the Barents Sea Region. The main features of the economies of the Barents Sea Region include: orientation to the development of natural resources (organic and inorganic) and biological resources (fish and sea animals) together with economic activities molded by the traditional way of life of indigenous peoples of the Arctic region and largely aimed at meeting their needs.
In the XXI century, the Arctic region plays an exceptional role in geopolitics. The richest natural resources (including energy), the development of technologies that allow these resources to be used, the growing importance of Northern sea communications and other factors have intensified the desire of leading states to take a strong position in the Arctic. At the same time, the enormous potential of the Arctic is of interest not only for the Arctic States, but also for those whose borders lie at a considerable distance from it. In this light, the research aimed at studying the continental shelf and clarifying its maritime boundaries, analyzing problems associated with human economic activity in the new conditions, with an emphasis on the negative consequences of this activity for the environment, including the solution of problems of defense, prevention and elimination of manmade disasters, the development of human capital and the preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of the Arctic, etc., are of particular importance. All these problems and many others were considered during the IV International scientific conference "Arctic: history and modernity", which was held at the two universities. At Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (17-18 April 2019) 417 specialists from 17 regions of Russia and 6 foreign countries took part in the conference including 6 representative offices of the Russian Arctic regions (YANAO, Komi, Yakutia, Arkhangelsk region, Murmansk region and Nenets Autonomous district) and 4 general consuls of the Arctic Council observer countries (France, Italy, Germany, Poland). 176 reports were heard. 195 specialists from 8 regions of Russia and 2 foreign countries took part in the event at Murmansk State Technical University (April 23-24, 2019) including 2 Consuls General of the Arctic Council member countries (Norway and Finland). 104 reports were heard. This collection of scientific papers is the result of the conference work as an interdisciplinary discussion platform on the study and research of the Arctic.
Historically, extreme remoteness and cold have left the Bering Strait region sparsely populated and economically undeveloped. Costs are very high and infrastructure is minimal. Economies are undeveloped, and based primarily on mining and government. Population densities are very low. A high proportion of residents are Natives for whom subsistence hunting and fishing remain important sources of food. In the future, environmental, economic, political and technological factors are likely to bring increased economic activity to the region—although the timing and scale of future economic change are difficult to predict. Economic activities most likely to grow include marine transportation; onshore and offshore mineral and hydrocarbon development; land-based and cruise ship tourism; commercial fishing; and government services and infrastructure needed to support economic and population growth. The nature, timing and scale of growth will depend on a wide range of factors including change in ice conditions, the extent of future resource discoveries; and the extent to which governments make development of the region an economic and strategic priority. Significant economic activities in the Bering Strait region for which shared governance issues are currently or likely to become important include marine subsistence, marine transportation, offshore oil and gas development, commercial fishing, and cruise ship tourism.
The article determines the role of the academic legacy of Honoured lawyer of the Russian Federation, Professor Nadezhda Georgievna Salischeva in forming the modern concept of administrative law and proceedings. The article contains an analysis of the main academic ideas and proposals of Professor Salischeva, aimed at improving public administration, administrative liability, and the establishment and development of the concept of administrative proceedings. The subject matter of the research in this article is Professor Salischeva’s academic work from both the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.
Contemporary challenges and threats to sustainable development including safe use of transboundary resources of rivers and Arctic seas in condition of climate change are connected with cumulative impact of numerous factors. Ongoing environmental changes have transboundary nature and will have significant impact in international scale. In case of overlapping of factors of impact their nature and synergetic effect, mechanisms of their interrelated influence and possible negative consequences for global economy, environment and human health are not adequately known. Among the main obstacles to mitigation of climate change impact on the state of big river basins in the Arctic and Arctic seas are: the lack of critically important information and data, absence of modern concepts of climate change mitigation measures connected with impact on Arctic seas, uncoordinated and inefficient regulation and management, absence of unified interstate tools of marine spatial planning. The article contains the analysis of risks and global consequences of the ongoing climate change for water resources; characteristic of priority issues and their underlying root causes. It also contains the results of the analysis of risks connected with melting of permafrost and increase in thermal coast erosion, assessment of the role of transboundary cooperation of water issues for sustainable regional development. The authors also propose some measures for addressing the above issues based on the Strategic Programme of Actions on the Protection of the Russian Part of the Arctic developed by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.