Social status and social learning
We studied the effect of social status on social learning and other personal characteristics in an experimental game where individuals in a dyad made repeated attempts to guess the underlying state of the world. Several sets of survey questions were deployed to control for socioeconomic status, the subjective perception of social status, and leadership traits, as well as quality and quantity of social interactions, and cognitive reflection. Risk aversion was measured using an incentivized task. We also induced social status in each pair of subjects using a dictator game. We found that people with high subjective social status relied less on observed choices of other subjects and put more weight on private information. Subjects who were less risk-averse and showed more leadership traits, were also less likely to learn from the actions of others. Some effects were gender-specific. Our finding that social learning is stronger in low-status individuals can imply higher likelihood of information cascades in hierarchical networks.
In theory, a poverty line can be defined as the cost of a common (inter-personally comparable) utility level across a population. But how can one know if this holds in practice? For groups sharing common consumption needs but facing different prices, the theory of revealed preference can be used to derive testable implications of utility consistency knowing only the "poverty bundles" and their prices. Heterogeneity in needs calls for extra information. We argue that subjective welfare data offer a credible means of testing utility consistency across different needs groups. A case study of Russia's official poverty lines shows how revealed preference tests can be used in conjunction with qualitative information on needs heterogeneity. The results lead us to question the utility consistency of Russia's official poverty lines.
The article is devoted to the role of social learning in a situation of solving of conflicts between peers at teenage age. The following hypothesis has been verified in the research: social learning increases probability of change of behaviour strategy in solving interpersonal conflicts between teenagers. 124 subjects, 70 men and 54 women (at the age from 13 till 14) have participated in the experiments. In our research K.Tomas's technique for diagnostics the personality’s style of behaviour in the conflict and D.Moreno's sociometric technique have been also used. Our results testifies that at the teenage age presence of the positive example for imitation - «significant other», using cooperation strategy for solving conflicts, increases probability of change of behaviour strategy for more constructive results of a conflict situation solving. The positive example for imitation is the most significant and is the most used in a case of recurrent occurrence of an interpersonal conflict. At the same time, «significant other», using confrontation strategy, does not provoke teenagers to use negative model of behaviour that is to choose rivalry and ignoring strategy in solving interpersonal conflicts with their peers.
In this paper, we want to introduce experimental economics to the field of data mining and vice versa. It continues related work on mining deterministic behavior rules of human subjects in data gathered from experiments. Game-theoretic predictions partially fail to work with this data. Equilibria also known as game-theoretic predictions solely succeed with experienced subjects in specific games – conditions, which are rarely given. Contemporary experimental economics offers a number of alternative models apart from game theory. In relevant literature, these models are always biased by philosophical plausibility considerations and are claimed to fit the data. An agnostic data mining approach to the problem is introduced in this paper – the philosophical plausibility considerations follow after the correlations are found. No other biases are regarded apart from determinism. The dataset of the paper “Social Learning in Networks” by Choi et al 2012 is taken for evaluation. As a result, we come up with new findings. As future work, the design of a new infrastructure is discussed.
The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the American social policy for the Vietnam War veterans. This paper includes three parts: description of protest movements and the struggle for the recognition of the Vietnam War veterans status; studying the problems and consequences of war syndrome; expertise of American legislation within the context of the Vietnam veterans social protection. The recognition of the PTSD as the illness allowed using rehabilitation programs for more effective integrating former combatants into a peaceful social environment. Measures of the combatants social support in the United States based on the implementation programs of preferential maintenance of educational needs, group life insurance, medical rehabilitation, not only owing of injuries, but also in connection with the effects of herbicides. In the USA active work is conducted on carrying out of such programs as assistance in finding co-soldiers, housing for homeless veterans of the Vietnam War, rehabilitation after returning from correctional institutions, the use of round-the-clock telephone hotline.
In the second year of life, infants are actively interested in objects used by adults, despite the number of experienced difficulties in achieving their goals while handling these objects. What causes the child attempt to handle an object for a designated purpose while watching the adult? One of the evident explanations concerns the effectiveness of the adult’s behavior and the child’s desire to achieve the same result. However, multiple studies have shown that a child is guided not exclusively by the hoped-for result, but also by the adult’s intention. In our study, we verified the reason guiding a child’s choice in an ambiguous condition modeled by situations which contrast intentional and effective adult behavior. We discovered that infants between 17 and 20 months old preferred to copy an adult’s intentional action even if this action did not result in positive outcome, but did not copy an adult’s accidental action, even if the action ended up with an attractive result. However, the child’s tendency to follow the adult’s intention develops during the process of growing, as no similar pattern is observed in children between 12 and 16 months old. Here we also discuss this phenomenon in terms of its relation to the existing data on the overimitation effect and the age range of its manifestation. The current study provides a view of social learning development which is an alternative to the traditional view which treats social learning only as an increase in the complexity of acquired actions with age. Our results suggest that what changes with development is that actions learned and demonstrated by the child become more and more relevant to planning and control of behavior.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.