Байонский Статут 1808 г. в Испании
The paper is devoted to the Constitution of 1808, granted by Napoleon to Spain. The author demonstrates the history of its promulgation, analyzes its sources, characteristic features, significance for the political and legal history of the country.
The second part of the article provides the system synthetic classification of presidential powers. The specification is based on explication of presidential status essence, sources of law, value-based and functional mission of powers, legal meaning and activity process of the President. There are two groups: ordinary and extraordinary powers, above all. The further split relates to constitutional and extra-textual powers and their spices. There are precedent, legal, statute, inherent and implicit extra-textual powers here. Also, the incident and political powers are determined among ordinary powers and non-public ones for extraordinary powers. Finally, the author argued the need of radical minimization of extra-textual powers and defines main directions of its realization. The legal and political bottlenecks prevented to bring presidential powers into compliance with the functionality assigned as constitutional are marked by the author.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.