We analyze a static Kyle (Continuous auctions and insider trading. Princeton University, Princeton, 1983) model in which a risk-neutral informed trader can use arbitrary (linear or non-linear) deterministic strategies, and a finite number of market makers can use arbitrary pricing rules. We establish a strong sense in which the linear Kyle equilibrium is robust: the first variation in any agent’s expected payoff with respect to a small variation in his conjecture about the strategies of others vanishes at equilibrium. Thus, small errors in a market maker’s beliefs about the informed speculator’s trading strategy do not reduce his expected payoffs. Therefore, the original equilibrium strategies remain optimal and still constitute an equilibrium (neglecting the higher-order terms). We also establish that if a non-linear equilibrium exists, then it is not robust. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Intellectual property law enshrines the monopoly of the copyright holder. It is absolutely necessary that this monopolism of the right holder does not contradict the public interest. The sphere of private and public relations in intellectual property law is currently one of the most relevant in the world. It causes interest in Russia. Separate articles have been published on this topic, but in the form of a monograph it is presented for the first time in this collected articles. Under the cover of this work are collected the articles of the authors whose views, academic schools, the practical experience are differ. We believe that this is an advantage of this collected articles, because it gives an idea of how difficult it is to achieve a balance between the monopolism of the right holder and the public interest.
Radio Observatory of Lebedev Physical Institute in Pushchino has one of the most sensitive radio telescope at 110 MHz BSA (Big Scanning Antenna). Since 2012 BSA started multi-beams observations using 96 beams in declination from -8 up to +42 degrees in 6 and 32 frequency bands at 109-112 MHz and time sampling 0.1 s and 0.0125 s. The data stream in 32 bands and time sampling of 0.0125 s is producing 87.5 gigabytes per day. The data obtained can be used for short and long-term monitoring of various classes of radio sources (including radio transients), the Earth's ionosphere, interplanetary and interstellar plasma monitoring. A database is constructed to facilitate access to a large amount of observational data (see http://astro.prao.ru/cgi/out_img.cgi). We discuss algorithms of detection and identification of different classes of transients using the database. In particular we found 83096 events which could be associated with pulsars, scintillation sources and fast radio transients. These events are a homogenous sample suitable for statistical analysis.
The comment to the civil code of the Russian Federation parts of the fourth (Volume 2)
Introduction: efficient legal protection of intellectual outputs is essential for the dynamic development of modern society. The list of intellectual property objects is not intended to be exhaustive, separate outputs lose their relevance and become excluded from the list of protected objects, while new ones, on the contrary, are added to it. Purpose: this work aims to identify the tendencies regarding the extension of the range of intellectual property objects at the beginning of the 21st century, and to define the scientific and technological progress results that were granted protection under the influence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and other factors. Methods: the method of formal logic, historical, comparative legal, systemic structural and formal dogmatic methods were used in course of the analysis. Results: international legal regulation does not provide clearly-defined guidelines to restrict the sphere of intellectual property. This factor undoubtedly contributes to expanding the list of its objects. At the beginning of the 21st century, law-based lists of copyrighted works did not include any new items. The institute of neighboring rights is most dynamically developing in the Law of the European Union. The Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market proposes recognizing two new neighboring rights. One of them is the right of the press publishers for online use of their publications by the news aggregators. The other neighboring right included into the draft Directive was the right to coverage of sporting events. However, in February, 2019, the provisions on this right were excluded from the Directive. In our opinion, biomedical cell products constitute new objects of civil circulation that require their own legal regulation as intellectual property constituents. Conclusions: intellectual property law cannot and should not undergo changes with the emergence of every new kind of objects. The contemporary challenge facing civil jurisprudence and the legislature is to formulate universal regulations that would make it possible to protect the rights of authors and developers of technological solutions even at the stage of experiments.
Companies are increasingly paying close attention to the IP portfolio, which is a key competitive advantage, so patents and patent applications, as well as analysis and identification of future trends, become one of the important and strategic components of a business strategy. We argue that the problems of identifying and predicting trends or entities, as well as the search for technical features, can be solved with the help of easily accessible Big Data technologies, machine learning and predictive analytics, thereby offering an effective plan for development and progress. The purpose of this study is twofold, the first is an identification of technological trends, the second is an identification of application areas and/or that are most promising in terms of technology development and investment. The research was based on methods of clustering, processing of large text files and search queries in patent databases. The suggested approach is considered on the basis of experimental data in the field of moving connected UAVs and passive acoustic ecology control.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/