Multiband superconductors with degenerate excitation gaps
There is a tacit assumption that multiband superconductors are essentially the same as multigap superconductors. More precisely, it is usually assumed that the number of excitation gaps in the single-particle energy spectrum of a uniform superconductor (i.e. number of peaks in the density of states of the superconducting electrons) determines the number of contributing bands in the corresponding superconducting model. Here we demonstrate that contrary to this widely accepted viewpoint, the superconducting magnetic properties are sensitive to the number of contributing bands even when the spectral gaps are degenerate and cannot be distinguished. In particular, we find that the crossover between superconductivity types I and II - the intertype regime - is strongly affected by the difference between characteristic lengths of multiple contributing condensates. The reason for this is that condensates with diverse characteristic lengths, when coexisting in one system, interfere constructively or destructively, which results in multi-condensate magnetic phenomena regardless of the presence/absence of the multigap spectrum of a superconducting multiband material.
We analyze the paradigmatic competition between intraband and crossband Cooper-pair formation in twoband superconductors, neglected in most works to date.We derive the phase-sensitive gap equations and describe the crossover between the intraband-dominated and the crossband-dominated regimes, delimited by a “gapless” state. Experimental signatures of crosspairing comprise notable gap splitting in the excitation spectrum, non-BCS behavior of gaps versus temperature, as well as changes in the pairing symmetry as a function of temperature. The consequences of these findings are illustrated on the examples of MgB2 and Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.