How Grades Had Been Gotten for Penguins and Money
This is a story about penguins and passing grades, about the practices and ethics of informal exchange in 1980s Leningrad and St. Petersburg 30 years later, and about things' incommensurability spurring stories. It is, specifically, about one dead penguin: a bird that was killed, found, bought, gifted, found, stolen, and gifted again.
The article explores the characteristics of modern digital writing and questions about its interaction with modern culture as a whole, studies the modification of the contemporary bodily experience of everyday life in comparison with the pre-digital era and translates these changes into texts produced by the present digital culture.
The monograph focuses on economic agents that substitute or complement the official healthcare system in modern Russia by serving alternative health maintenance practices. A detailed description of their activities is provided on the basis of an analysis of nationwide secondary data (public statistics, mass media, laws and regulations), as well as observations and interviews from the field research in the Perm region in 2013. The book consists of two parts. The first – introductory – chapter contains some generalizations and reflections on the subject matter in general. The following chapters are a series of independent sociographic essays that focus on selected "informal healthcare" phenomena classified by the principal product offered to the customers: goods, gifts of nature, diagnostic and treatment services, ideas/beliefs, or information. Among others, we consider direct selling of health products and itinerant trade in them; latent social functions of pharmacies; services of healers and doctors of alternative medicine; gathering and production of healing gifts of nature by private households; healing practices of religious organizations; and dissemination of self-treatment information in the mass media. The publication targets a wide audience, including professionals in healthcare management, social scientists, and everyone interested in health protection and the informal economy in Russia.
The traditional life style changes as business and personal communications are moving to the Internet, and a new type of people – digital nomads – is emerging. Most activities, including commerce, transfer to WWW. Storytelling has started playing a greater role in promotion of goods and services, politicians and parties than direct advertising.
Stories seem to be true-to-life from the first sight, but most of them have definite mythological elements. The word creates images, and myths are made out of images. Virtual narrators involve «settlers» as well as «nomads» into the brand culture creating their own “heroes” and villains. The process of constructing and deconstructing different myths is going on in the «global village». Digital nomads may take part in myth-building or destroy «sacred images» being contracted employees or doing it for fun and pleasure.
Young active users, especially nomads, are a specific breed. Mobility and an opportunity to stay connected to the Net practically in every place of the world are typical for them. As a rule they have a broad outlook. In marketing terms they usually belong to a group of «innovators», «early adopters». They are independent, enjoy non-standard thinking, and at the same time have their own opinion leaders. All these should be taken into account when one is working out an effective marketing communication with digital nomads.
Typology of narratives as well as myths and archetypes which are used by marketers while communicating with nomads are presented in the paper. The role of visualization in creating involving content is being emphasized. Several cases in which storytelling is used as a marketing instrument are being analyzed.
This article presents an empirical study of the economic activity of the population. appearing in the form of craft s, that is the entrepreneur’s self-supporting activity aimed at household subsistence. Primary forms of such activity are self-employment, individual entrepreneurship and hiring. Th e purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between archaic and modern types of craft s in the local communities. As a result, the author elaborates the concept of the craft evolution. Th e craft s were diff erentiated into archaic (traditional) and modern. Archaic craft s exist for a long time (centuries and millennia) almost unchanged; they use natural and agricultural resources, and are oriented to old markets. Modern craft s have recently emerged; they use new resources, and are oriented to new markets. Th e fi eldwork was carried out in local communities in the south of Russia (Krasnodar region, Taman peninsula and Anapa district), where in 11 settlements (the town of Temryuk, 7 stanitsas (rural settlements), and 3 small urban settlements), materials were collected on all types of informal and formal occupations of the population. Th ey are gathered by methods of direct observation and non-formalized focused interview. In most local communities craft activity is diverse. Everywhere there are from one to three or more dozens of craft s. Most craft smen practice informal employment. In every local community there are both archaic (traditional) and modern craft s. Estimating the prevalence of household activities and the relationship between archaic and modern craft s allows us to identify three contrast groups of local communities: (1) communities with the prevalence of archaic craft s; (2) communities with an equally large number of both archaic and modern types of craft s; (3) communities with a reduction in craft activity, in which the population reoriented to modern craft s, which are organized on the basis of abundant resources from tourists. Th e comparison of the number of craft s with self-assessment of the population life quality shows that labor-consuming and not fully resourced archaic (traditional) craft s contribute to maintaining the high resilience of local communities against negative external infl uences. Th e reorientation of households to modern (usually abundant) resources with simultaneous abandonment of archaic economic practices and the reduction of the total number of craft s in the local community is accompanied (or leads) to a decrease in community’s stability. It is manifested in the assessment of the quality of relations between people, and in the criminalization of the local community (the growth of crime, drug addiction, prostitution). Th e author proposes a model of the craft s development the basis of which is the ratio of archaic (traditional) and modern types of craft s in the economic behavior of the population. Th e model allows predicting the dependence of the types of craft s in the local communities on the nature and features of the available resource base. It also allows assessing the development trends of the household’s craft activity, external threats, and the risks to the stability of local cocieties.
At the origin of the study of Crimean Tatar folklore (folklore collections of the Alupka palace-museum) / Kachlyavik K. Y., Kirnoze Z. I., Lobkov A. E. // The Black Sea region. History, politics, culture. – No XX(IX). Series B: Modern and Contemporary history. – Sevastopol: Sevastopol Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2017. – P. 40–47. In the early 1930s the Soviet government undertook a grandiose attempt to subdue folklore in accordance with its own ideological goals. In the Crimea, a group of folklorists assembled by Alupka State-Museum began a scientific study of folklore materials. In the years 1934–1937 more than hundred tales and legends, many stories of Nasreddin Hodja and Achmet Achae, proverbs and sayings, as well as the epic poems “Chora Batir” and “Edige” were recorded. The activities of the group were interrupted during the Great Terror, in 1937 and 1938. Some of the collected materials were published in two volumes, both in Russian: “Tales and Legends of the Crimean Tatars” (1936) and “Anecdotes of Nasreddin Hodja and Achmet Achae” (1937) the first volume also being published in Crimean Tatar “Qrьm tatar masallarь ve legendalarь” (1937). Introductory articles to books were written by Sergey Kotsubinsky, a research scientist at the Aluplka Museum.
This study considers the influence of structutal change to aggregate labour productivity growth of the Russian economy. The term “structural change” refers to labour reallocation both between industries and between formal and informal segments within an industry. Using Russia KLEMS and official Rosstat data we decompose aggregate labour productivity growth into intra-industry (within) and between industry effects with four alternative methods of the shift share analysis. All methods provide consistent results and demonstrate that total labour reallocation has been growth enhancing though the informality expansion has had the negative effect. As our study suggests, it is caused by growing variation in productivity levels across industries.
The book is dedicated to the Leningrad architect Nikolai Alexandrovich Miturich (1891–1973), whose work has so far remained virtually unexplored in Russian historiography. His long and incredibly rich creative career will be a discovery for anyone interested in Russian art of the first half of the 20th century. Miturich took part in the most important events in the history of the Leningrad architectural school during the first post-revolutionary decades. His legacy is very diverse: from park kiosks and sports pavilions to Palaces of Culture and theater buildings. This book contains unique materials from the architect’s personal archive. For the first time, more than 100 documents are published: photographs, architectural projects, furniture sketches, theatrical stage designs, as well as a diary and drawings created during his trip to the battle front during the First World War.
The presented book review is devoted to “Otkhodniks” by Plusnin Ju., Zausaeva Ya., Zhidkevich N., Pozanenko A. (editor — S. Kordonsky). Otkhodnichestvo is a type of labor migration implying a scenario in which an adult, able-bodied family member temporarily leaves home to seek work in another area. Otkhodnichestvo has a long history in Russia but a new wave of its mass dissemination appeared in recent decades. The reviewed book defines a concept of otkhodnichestvo, considers what similarities and dissimilarities there are between this phenomenon and other forms of labor migration (i.e. jobbers, rotation workers, and temporary cross-border migrants). It reveals the otkhodniks’ motivation and economic patterns, describes typical social and demographic characteristics of contemporary wandering workers, evaluates otkhodniks’ cultural and social impact on local their community’s everyday life, etc. The book is based on a series of fieldwork studies conducted by the authors in small Russian towns over the last four years. In the review Barsukova discusses her impressions of the book, outlining its unusual genre. One uncontestable advantage of the book is an ethnographic material allowing readers to become immersed in all details of otkhodnik life. Otkhodniks usually come from small rural towns. They are forced to leave their homes to seek jobs in other areas because there are no opportunities for them to earn money in their permanent place of residence. Moreover, a key driver of the discussed form of labor migration is the otkhodniks’ aspiration to provide normal living conditions for their family members. The book review author highlights that otkhdoniks should be discussed not just in terms of their informal employment, the context of family relationship transformation should also be taken seriously into account.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.