Dostoevskii and the Birth of the Conscientious Terrorist: From the Underground Man to Underground Russia
This paper argues that as Dostoevsky endeavored to affirm a moral ideal in his struggle against nihilism—attempting to overcome the “inertia” of his protagonist the Underground Man—he gave lucid articulation to the moral-aesthetic values that would later become a staple for Russian revolutionaries, particularly the “conscientious” terrorist. Within this context the case of Vera Zasulich will be examined as an unanticipated realization of Dostoevsky’s moral ideal.
This paper provides some comparison of Herzen’s and Hegel’s notions on philosophy of history and claims to represent Herzen, anatomizing the situation of European riots of the mid. 19th century, as а thinker of current interest. While Herzen asserts that history is a development process with no predetermined goal, Hegel (whose works were very important for Russian intellectuals of Herzen’s generation) proclaims that history has already ended with the Napoleon’s Empire and his own — Hegel’s — philosophy.
The article touches approach of the modern Islamic legal thought to the Islamic state and caliphate. The author explains the fundamental principles if Islamic concept of the power (caliphate) and points out that this concept was gradually deviating from real political practice. The caliphate itself remained as a political institution till the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the World War I. After emergence of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) the caliphate converted to concrete political project. In June 2014 ISIL which changed its name to become “Islamic State” (IS) declared creation of caliphate. In practice the Shariat implementation in IS comes to mass killings, forcing nonmuslims to adopt Islam, interference into internal life of Muslim states and terror attacks. The modern Islamic legal thought criticizes IS severely stressing on its violence of religious postulates and Shariat provisions.
References to the problem of the End of History are not infrequent in various political, cultural and philosophic discussions. This notion is often postulated as something quite apparent or as something of great influence and which nevertheless both are attemted to be refuted. The purpose of the paper is to follow philosophic roots of this conception and observe conditions and stages in its development.