The local slip length and flow fields over nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces
The taxonomy of common northern nudibranch molluscs of the genus Dendronotus in the vast cold regions of Eurasia remains largely unknown. Abundant material collected in many localities from the Barents Sea, via the Arctic region, to the north-west Pacific was analysed for the first time. An integrated approach combining morphological and ontogenetic data with molecular four-gene (COI, 16S, H3, and 28S) analysis reveals seven species, including three previously undescribed. Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius, 1774) and Dendronotus dalli Bergh, 1879 were commonly considered as amphiboreal species; however, according to this study they are restricted to the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, respectively. In the north-west Pacific two new species were discovered, Dendronotus kamchaticus sp. nov. and Dendronotus kalikal sp. nov., that are externally similar to D. frondosus, but that show significant distance according to molecular analysis and are considerably different in radular morphology. In the North Atlantic a new species Dendronotus niveus sp. nov., sibling to North Pacific D. dalli, is revealed. The separate status of North Atlantic Dendronotus lacteus (Thompson, 1840) is confirmed, including considerable range extension. The essential similarity of early ontogenetic stages of radular development common for species with disparate adult radular morphology (such as D. frondosus and D. dalli) is shown, and its importance for taxonomy is discussed.
Ninety-one specimens of Aponuphis from 27 stations off the western African coast from Morocco to Angola as well as from two localities in the North Sea and from a single locality off Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. A fragment of 16 rDNA was obtained for 29 specimens of Aponuphis. A Neighbor Joining analysis revealed the presence of two species complexes (A. bilineata species complex and A. brementi species complex), A. ornata and a potentially new species Aponuphis sp. Besides three typical color morphs characteristic to A. bilineata, A. brementi, and A. ornata, the large number of specimens displayed indistinct color patterns of transversal pigmented bands or dots on anterior chaetigers. Specimens with such coloration were found in A. bilineata, A. brementi and the new species Aponuphis sp. Only A. ornata showed constant “horse-shoe” color pattern.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.