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Article

Three-dimensional polymer wire bonds on chip: morphology and functionality

Zvagelsky R., Chubich D., Kolymagin D., Korostylev E., Kovalyuk V., Prokhodtsov A., Tarasov A., Goltsman G., Vitukhnovsky A.

Modern microchip-scale transceivers are capable of transmitting data at rates of the order of several terabits per second. In this regard, there is an urgent need to improve the interfaces connecting the chips and extend the bandpass of the interconnections. We use an approach combining silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits with 3D polymer waveguides fabricated by direct laser writing, which can be used as photonic interconnections or photonic wire bonds (PWB). These structures are designed, simulated, fabricated, and optimized for better light transmission at the telecommunication wavelength. An important part of this work is the study of the telecom signal transmission in a 3D polymer waveguide connecting two silicon nitride facing tapers. Two cases are considered: the tapers are one opposite the other or misaligned. Initially, the PWB shape was chosen to be Gaussian and then optimized: the top was circle-shaped and with the lower part still being Gaussian. Transmission losses were measured for both types of waveguides with different shapes. The idea of an optical multi-level crossing for photonic integrated circuits is also suggested as a solution to the problem of interconnections within a single chip.