Three-dimensional polymer wire bonds on chip: morphology and functionality
Modern microchip-scale transceivers are capable of transmitting data at rates of the order of several terabits per second. In this regard, there is an urgent need to improve the interfaces connecting the chips and extend the bandpass of the interconnections. We use an approach combining silicon nitride nanophotonic circuits with 3D polymer waveguides fabricated by direct laser writing, which can be used as photonic interconnections or photonic wire bonds (PWB). These structures are designed, simulated, fabricated, and optimized for better light transmission at the telecommunication wavelength. An important part of this work is the study of the telecom signal transmission in a 3D polymer waveguide connecting two silicon nitride facing tapers. Two cases are considered: the tapers are one opposite the other or misaligned. Initially, the PWB shape was chosen to be Gaussian and then optimized: the top was circle-shaped and with the lower part still being Gaussian. Transmission losses were measured for both types of waveguides with different shapes. The idea of an optical multi-level crossing for photonic integrated circuits is also suggested as a solution to the problem of interconnections within a single chip.
We report the realization of STM-based lithography with silicon layers removal on the chlorinated Si(100)-2x1 surface at 77K. In contrast to other STM lithography studies, we were able to remove locally both chlorine and silicon atoms. Most of the etched pits have a lateral size of 10-20A and a depth of 1-5A. In the pits in which the STM image with atomic resolution is obtained, the bottom is mainly covered with chlorine. Some pits contain chlorine vacancies. Mechanisms of STM-induced removal of silicon and chlorine atoms on Si(100)-2x1-Cl are discussed and compared with the well-studied case of STM-induced hydrogen desorption on Si(100)-2x1-H. The results open up new possibilities of the three-dimensional local etching with STM lithography.
Here we experimentally studied dependence of a focusing grating coupler efficiency versus taper length and angle on silicon nitride platform. As a result, we obtained a dependence for the efficiency of a focusing grating coupler on the parameters of the taper length and angle.
Efficient nonlinear conversion requires that interacting optical waves maintain a consistent phase relationship when traveling in a medium despite its dispersion. Birefringent phase-matching, which is often used to compensate for the dispersion, is not applicable to optically isotropic nonlinear materials. Here, we present a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure that allows the propagation of optical surface waves, both at the fundamental and third-harmonic frequencies, as an efficient medium for phasematched third-harmonic generation. A unique advantage of this structure is that the effective refractive indices for the surface waves are similar to the refractive index of air at both frequencies. This allows phase-matching between the first and third harmonics, and a visible collinear beam of the third harmonic is produced at the prism-coupled output. Moreover, these optical surface waves propagate over long distances even if a lossy nonlinear nanofilm is deposited onto the photonic crystal surface. We provide experimental results for third-harmonic generation at a wavelength of 410 nm for a bare dielectric Ta2O5/SiO2 multilayer structure and for the same structure coated with a 15-nm GaAs film.
In recent years, Ge has become one of the key materials in silicon photonics. In particular, considerable hopes are associated with the use of deformed (stretched) Ge to solve the problem of creating an effective near-IR radiation source on silicon. This paper presents the results of the formation of uniaxially deformed Ge microstructures and the study of their luminescence spectra.
The sixteen-volume set comprising the LNCS volumes 11205-11220 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2018, held in Munich, Germany, in September 2018. The 776 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 2439 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on learning for vision; computational photography; human analysis; human sensing; stereo and reconstruction; optimization; matching and recognition; video attention; and poster sessions.
This paper investigates the problem in the field of large volumes of 3D data. Existing methods of solution, analysis of the current state and features of systems for obtaining, representing and compressing spatial data are investigated.
In the paper, we address key principles for computer-aided design and fabrication of silicon-photonics-based optical beamforming network selecting the optimal approach by simulation and experimental results. To clarify the consideration, the study is conducted on the example of a widely used binary switchable silicon-nitride optical beamforming network based on TriPleX platform. Comparison of simulation results and experimental studies of the prototype shows that the relative error due to technological imperfections does not exceed 3%. According to the estimation, such an error introduces insignificant distortion in the radiation pattern of the referred antenna array.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.