A serious game to explore human foraging in a 3D environment
Traditional search tasks have taught us much about vision and attention. Recently, several groups have begun to use multiple-target search to explore more complex and temporally extended “foraging” behaviour. Many of these new foraging tasks, however, maintain the simplified 2D displays and response demands associated with traditional, single-target visual search. In this respect, they may fail to capture important aspects of real-world search or foraging behaviour. In the current paper, we present a serious game for mobile platforms, developed in Unity3D, in which human participants play the role of an animal foraging for food in a simulated 3D environment. Game settings can be adjusted, so that, for example, custom target and distractor items can be uploaded, and task parameters, such as the number of target categories or target/distractor ratio are all easy to modify. We are also making the Unity3D project available, so that further modifications can also be made. We demonstrate how the app can be used to address specific research questions by conducting two human foraging experiments. Our results indicate that in this 3D environment, a standard feature/conjunction manipulation does not lead to a reduction in foraging runs, as it is known to do in simple, 2D foraging tasks.
Despite efforts to curb tobacco use, global tobacco addiction remains as strong as ever. Smoking rates are declining very slowly in advanced countries, and they are increasing in the developing world. Yet, researchers still do not fully understand what drives smoking decisions. Life-Course Smoking Behavior presents smoking trajectories of different generations of women and men from ten of the world's most visible countries, with nation-specific representative samples spanning more than eighty years of recent history. To inspire hypotheses on the determinants of smoking behavior, the authors place these data in economic, political, social, and cultural contexts, which differ greatly both across countries at a particular time and over time in a given country. Though significant research has been conducted on smoking statistics and tobacco control policies, most descriptions of smoking behavior rely on cross-sectional "snapshot" data that do not track individuals' habits throughout their lifespan. Lillard and Christopoulou's work is a unique and necessary text in its comparative life-course approach, making it a long overdue complement to the existing literature.https://global.oup.com/academic/product/life-course-smoking-behavior-9780199389100?q=life-course%20smoking%20behavior&lang=en&cc=ru#
Consumer ethnocentrism is a special field in marketing literature that emerged from the theoretical and empirical attempts to identify the effects associated with a specific perception of domestic products by consumers. As it was demonstrated in several studies, the patriotic economic behavior of consumers can be observed under certain socio-economic and cultural conditions. This behavior has a positive effect on the assessment of quality, perceived value and willingness to buy domestic products and a negative impact on the consumption of foreign goods. However, understanding the possible marketing effects of consumer ethnocentrism is significantly limited due to the lack of relevant research experience at the regional rather than national level - both in the international and Russian practice. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the results of previous studies is conducted in order to provide theoretical support for existence of consumer patriotism at the regional level in Russia. The obtained results can serve a basis for hypotheses development of further empirical research.
By defining the structure of thought and psyche content it has been indicated that the consciousness is the functional element of the psyche actualized by a subject to organize its life activity. The thought with its operations is considered as the mechanism of consciousness. It has been argued that the reflection is put on the thinking and there is no reason to consider it separately from thought. In keeping with this argumentation it has shown that all cognitive processes could be divided into two categories: the processes that support the mental activity and the processes that acts as the mechanisms of that support. Based on the investigation of thought and mind relationship the psychological content interpretation of such operation as the judgment, mental decision, and reasoning
This chapter gives an overview of the evolution of explanatory models of the fundamentals of human motivation throughout the last century: from the concepts of instinct and drive to basic needs, and from the lists of biologically rooted needs to the discovery of non-biological, social, and existential imperatives to human behavior. The integrative model, proposed by the author, distinguishes three qualitatively different levels of individual-world relationships: the biological existence, the social existence, and the personal existence. Objective meta-necessities inherent in each level (including the actualization of potentialities and relating to the environment; social belongingness and integration; self-determination and autonomous choice) underlie special needs relevant to this particular level.
This work contains preliminary data analysis of quantitative survey "Man, family, society" made by Institute of Social Prognosis in 2013 on nationwide sample in 9557 people. The survey provides valuable information about the partnership and reproductive biographies, territorial mobility, education and employment strategy, financial situation and retirement behavior of the population.The focus of our analysis focuses on the demographic and socio-economic behavior of the population, through the prism of the individual and the way of life of the household.
Argumentation in law and morals often, if not always, concerns human actions and conduct, for which rational agents’ reasoning aim to justify a line of behavior by promoting some value, observing relevant norms or weighing alternative ways of how to achieve a certain goal. Such argumentation is called practical and it contrasts theoretical argumentation, over agents’ opinions about situations or states of affairs. The practical argumentation provides replies on how to behave and what to do in certain circumstances, which values or norms should be taken into accout and why. Practical and theoretical argumentation differ in their structure and in their arguments’ evaluation. In theoretical argumentation, the arguments consist of descriptive premises expressing agents’ knowledge and beliefs about the facts and situations, the discussion over which constitutes the theoretical argumentative disputes. In the theoretical argumentation, arguments employ logically rigorous, plausible or probabilistic inferences. The practical argumentation is plausible and presumptive, or defeasible, for along with its premises expressing agents’ knowledge and beliefs over situations, the arguments also contain premises that describe the consequences of the actions’ performance or non-performance, as well as the goals, values, norms and desires of agents, regarding which only presumptive information is available. Conclusions of practical arguments can be revised whenever the information over the circumstances of the planned action or the earlier assessments of its consequences are updated. Legal and moral argumentation are separate species of the practical argumentation and there is a number of significant differences between them. The most significant of them is the role of practical presumptions and reasoning ideals used in the argumentation; the difference in the understanding of the agentive criterion, predominantly institutional in the legal argumentation, is of great importance
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.