Size Effects in Nanocrystalline Thoria
The facile chemical precipitation method and subsequent thermal treatment were shown to be suitable for preparation of crystalline ThO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in a wide range of particle sizes (from 2.5 to 34.3 nm). The obtained NPs were investigated with X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption techniques to find out the possible size effects associated with nanocrystalline thoria. For 2.5 nm NPs, the lattice parameter of ThO2 was found to increase by up to 1.1%, in comparison with the bulk material. The decrease in the particle size was also accompanied by a significant decrease in the Th–Th coordination number.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
This volume contains the papers presented at the session "Data Science" within the V International Conference on Information Technology and Nanotechnology (ITNT-2019). The conference was held in Samara, Russia, during May 21-24, 2019 (itnt-conf.org). The conference is a forum for leading researchers from all over the world aimed to discuss the latest advances in the basic and applied research in the field of Information Technology and Nanotechnology. It is also aimed to attract young people to advanced scientific research and share the latest trends in training and research programs for future ITNT specialists . In addition to the session "Data Science", ITNT-2019 also included three other sessions: "Computer Optics and Nanophotonics", "Image Processing and Earth Remote Sensing" and "Mathematical Modeling of Physico-Technical Processes and Systems". The whole forum brought together more than 450 scientists from United Kindom, Japan, Switzerland, Iran, Poland, Bulgaria, Finland, China, Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as representatives of global high-tech corporations, developers of modern electronics – Huawei, Nvidia, Intel, and Azimuth Photonics, and more than 60 cities in the world. 436 talks enabled discussion on a wide range of topics. The topics of the session "Data Science" were grouped into the following key directions: Data Mining (Big data, Systems and platforms, Methods); Machine Learning (Neural networks, Statistical methods, Feature-based classification, Applications); Security, Cryptography (Cryptosystems design and analysis, Mathematical and algorithmic aspects, Efficient implementations of algorithms, Network security); High Performance Computing (Parallel programming models and languages, Highperformance implementations, Complex systems simulation).
We discuss the effect of self-heating on performance of injection microdisk lasers operating in continuous-wave (CW) regime at room and elevated temperature. A model is developed that allows one to obtain analytical expressions for the peak optical power limited by the thermal rollover effect, the corresponding injection current and excess temperature of the device. The model predicts, there exists the maximum temperature of microlaser operation in CW regime and the minimum mircrodisk diameter, at which CW lasing is possible. The model allows one to determine the dependence of the device characteristics on its diameter and the inherent parameters, such as thermal resistance, electrical resistance, non-radiative recombination and characteristic temperature of the threshold current. It is found that a rapid growth of the threshold current density with decreasing the diameter (which takes place even in the absence of the self-heating effect) is the main internal reason leading to the dependence of the temperature characteristics of the mirodisk laser on its size. In the calculations, we used a set of parameters extracted from experiments with InGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers. The simulation results (in particular, the light-current curve and the dependence of the minimum microdisk diameter on ambient temperature) comply well with the measured dependences.
In this article, I summarize my theoretical developments in the statistical field theory of salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules. Based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich integral transformation, I represent configuration integrals of dilute salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules in the form of functional integrals over the space-dependent fluctuating electrostatic potential. In the mean-field approximation, for both cases, I derive integro-differential self-consistent field equations for the electrostatic potential, generated by the external charges in solutions media, which generalize the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Using the obtained equations, in the linear approximation, I derive for the both cases a general expression for the electrostatic potential of a point-like test ion, expressed through certain screening functions. I derive an analytical expression for the electrostatic potential of the point-like test ion in a salt zwitterionic solution, generalizing the well known Debye-Hueckel potential. In the salt-free solution case, I obtain analytical expressions for the local dielectric permittivity around the point-like test ion and its effective solvation radius. For the case of salt solutions of multipolar molecules, I find a new oscillating behavior of the electrostatic field potential of the point-like test ion at long distances, which is caused by the nonzero quadrupole moments of the multipolar molecules. I obtain a general expression for the average quadrupolar length of a multipolar solute. Using the random phase approximation (RPA), I derive general expressions for the excess free energy of bulk salt solutions of zwitterionic and multipolar molecules and analyze the limiting regimes resulting from them. I generalize the salt zwitterionic solution theory for the case when several kinds of zwitterions are dissolved in the solution. In this case, within the RPA, I obtain a general expression for the solvation energy of the test zwitterion. Finally, I demonstrate how to take a systematic account of the excluded volume correlations between multipolar molecules in addition to their electrostatic correlations. I believe that the formulated findings could be useful for the future theoretical models of the real ion-molecular solutions, such as salt solutions of micellar aggregates, metal-organic complexes, proteins, betaines, etc.
The development of advanced electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage requires fine tuning of electrode reactions, which can be accomplished by altering the electrode/solution interface structure. Particularly, in case of an alkali-salt electrolyte the electric double layer (EDL) composition can be managed by introducing organic cations (e.g. room temperature ionic liquid cations) that may possess polar fragments. To explore this approach, we develop a theoretical model predicting the efficient replacement of simple (alkali) cations with dipolar (organic) ones within the EDL. For the typical values of the molecular dipole moment ($2-4~D$) the effect manifests itself at the surface charge densities higher than 30 $\mu C/cm^2$. We show that the predicted behavior of the system is in qualitative agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.