The European Russia Drought Atlas (1400-2016 CE)
We present the European Russia Drought Atlas (ERDA) that covers the East European Plain to the Ural Mountains from 1400–2016 CE. Like the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) for the Euro-Mediterranean region, the ERDA is a one-half degree gridded reconstruction of summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices estimated from a network of annual tree-ring chronologies. Ensemble point-by-point regression is used to generate the ERDA with the identical protocols used for developing the OWDA. Split calibration/validation tests of the ERDA indicate that it has significant skill over most of its domain and is much more skillful than the OWDA where they overlap in the western part of ERDA domain. Comparisons to historical droughts over European Russia additionally support the ERDA’s overall validity. The ERDA has been spatially smoothed and infilled using a local regression method to yield a spatially complete drought atlas back to 1400 CE. EOF analysis indicates that there are three principal modes of hydroclimatic variability in the ERDA. After Varimax rotation, these modes correlate significantly with independent climate data sets extending back to the late nineteenth century in a physically interpretable way and relate to atmospheric circulation dynamics of droughts and heatwaves over European Russia based on more recent instrumental data.
The authors show the need and some existing opportunities for analysis of non-traditional data sources to obtain a complete and more relevant picture of industries spatial development. The research methodology includes the use of text mining for economic and geographical studies. The relevance of the research is determined by insufficient completeness of official statistical data, cheapening of relevant information processing technologies and abundance of large text data sources in open access. The article discusses the role of the pulp and paper industry (as a key part of the timber industry) in economic and spatial development of modern Russia. The authors identify main trends in the economic and spatial development of the pulp and paper industry of European Russia, draw the conclusions on the expected industry trends and give recommendations for strategic management decisions to respond to industry challenges. The authors claim that the industry needs liberalization and stabilization, primarily through moratoriums on policy changes. The role of the use of big data, and in particular of text mining in economic and geographical research for reasonable and objective conclusions formation that can be used to make timely and balanced management decisions in the timber industry and the pulp and paper industry, is emphasized.
This chapter explores marine resource and environmental governance regimes in the Arctic regions in the twentieth century. We review important trajectories of living and mineral marine resource exploration in Arctic marine environments from a history of science and an environmental history perspective. Starting with the emergence of ocean scientization and internationalization in the early twentieth century we follow the sciences and the technologies of ocean management until the present. We draw on the histories of fisheries, seabed mining and ecosystem-based management schemes with a regional focus on the Barents Sea, the North Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The aims of the chapter are twofold. Firstly, we aim to identify historical path-dependencies understood as opportunities, interventions and oppositions for agency. To this end, we explore the definitions and demarcations of zones and partitions of marine spaces as political, institutional and technoscientific conjunctures. Secondly, we focus on the conceptions of sustainability that informed the boundary drawing processes and emanated from them. The chapter identifies shifting notions of sustainability, from maximum sustained yield to wider concerns with global ecosystem sustenance to sustaining economies as part of environmental responsibilities and protection schemes.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Papers about natural protection territories
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction