Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech Signals in the Kullback–Leibler Information Metric
We consider the problem of determination of the intelligibility of speech of a speaker according to a fi nite
fragment of the speech signal. It is shown that the main diffi culties in the solution of this problem are
connected with the necessity of analysis of small samples. To overcome the problem of small samples, we
proposed a new high-speed method for measuring the intelligibility of speech signals on the sonic level of
its perception. The proposed method is based on the information indicator of speech intelligibility in the
Kullback–Leibler metric. We consider an example of practical realization of the new method with the use
of a self-regression model of minimum sound units from the speech fl ow of a speaker. The characteristics
of effi ciency of the new method are analyzed. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the application
of the information indicator enables us to realize the general systems principle of guaranteed result. On
the basis of the software developed by the authors, we designed and performed full-scale experiments
and established quantitative estimates for the speed of this method. It is shown that, with the help of this
method, quite accurate and reliable estimates of the information indicator are obtained for short (2–3 min)
segments of speech signals. The accumulated results and the conclusions made on their basis are intended
for applications in the development of new systems and improvement of the existing systems of automatic
speech processing and recognition intended for the operation in the real-time mode.
The current paper considers the lexico-semantical type of performative verbs and performative utterances. The definition of performative verb and its characteristics are given in the paper. The author also regards the use of performative and conditions when the phenomenon of performativity occurs. Different approaches to taxonomy of performative utterances based on illocutary force are described.
This article analyzes the views of the Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz on the language, the word and the speech. Particular attention is paid to the problem of speech, as well as concepts such as transparency and silence of the word
The Fourth Saint Petersburg Winter Workshop on Experimental Studies of Speech and Language (Night Whites 2018)
The perception of complex auditory information such as complete speech sequences develops during human ontogeny. In order to explore age differences in the auditory perception of predictable speech sequences we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in 5- to 6-yearold children (N = 15) and adults (N = 15) in response to anticipated speech sequences as successive and reverse digital series with randomly omitted digits. The ERPs obtained from the omitted digits significantly differed in the amplitude and latency of the N200 and P300 components between adults and children, the N400 and LPC components were more pronounced in children in the right frontal area for the digits presentation. These findings indicate that the perception of a successive speech structure is less automated in children and requires a detailed analysis of the successive structure and error detection. These differences in auditory ERPs reflect developmental changes in the auditory perception of speech sequences and can serve as indicators of the maturity of cognitive functions in children.
Contemporary philosophy of language studies a broad range of questions connected with the functioning of language in the environment. There can be singled out three paradigms of language existence: speech, written language, and digital language. Diachronically language appeared and initially existed in the form of speech. The paper regards speech as a biological ability of social adaptation in language environment having an orienting function. With the advent of writing, people entered into a textual environment. Written language is an artifact, a part and parcel of our life. Nowadays, we witness a new era of digital language and virtual environment. Digital language is seen to be interactive, dialogical, iconic, being a hybrid of written and oral types of languages. A digital/electronic text is simiotically charged with icons, types of fonts, color, position, pictures and videos. The paper presents a discourse analysis triggered by the creolized text post on Facebook. Semiotically speaking, a creolized text forms a unity of verbal and non-verbal constituents which afford an observer to be part of it and interpret it. In case of Facebook posting, discourse is distributed and expanded because many people can see or take part in it. The example brought in the paper shows that the discourse unfolding on the timeline is not necessarily linear because it can spread in branches or shorter discourses. A post can encourage Facebook users to expand it into a discourse or even many discourses. Commenters use colloquial language, emotionally charged with emoji (smiles), morphological, lexical, and semantic means.
51st Academy of Aphasia Proceedings
The article describes the correlation of language and speech. Language and speech are related, but they are not identical; each of them occupies its niche in human consciousness. The language system is a verbose concept, which is derived from the process of speaking and understanding. Language reveals itself in individual speech and only represents he world, and not objectively. Language functions in speech, because in language communication a speaker uses permanent samples, cliches, standards that helps to form language environment for him.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.