A Gradual Reformation: Empirical Character and Causal Powers in Kant
According to Kant each person has an empirical character, which is ultimately grounded in one's free choice. The popular Causal Laws interpretation of empirical character holds that it consists of the causal laws governing our psychology. I argue that this reading has difficulties explaining moral change, the gradual reformation' of our empirical character: Causal laws cannot change and hence cannot be gradually reformed. I propose an alternative Causal Powers interpretation of empirical character, where our empirical character consists of our mind's causal powers. The resulting picture of empirical character allows for moral change and Kantian weakness of will.
The book aspires to show the inherent paradoxes of the "pure idea" of freedom and its foreignness, and possible contrariety, revealed in and by some specific historical-political contexts, to freedom as practice of human liberation. This theme is looked at mainly through the prism of Kant's moral and political philosophy, which-by way of critical engagement with it-offers a particularly propitious vantage point for its exploration and elaboration. Kant's Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, with its dramatic juxtaposition and conjoining of freedom with evil, along with its emphasis on "radical evil" and, at the same time, its dismissal of "diabolic evil" (as something applicable to and practicable by humans) is particularly seminal in this respect. The book furnishes a political-philosophical reading of the paradoxes of Kant's account of freedom and culminates in showing what they reveal and allow us to come to grips with politics in "real life", in particular the politics of great revolutions.
This article deals with reconstruction of representations of V. Frankl about the Person as a basis of an individualization and self$formation. Methodological bases of V. Frankl-understanding of the Person in philosophical anthropology of M. Sheler and psychological categories by means of which the process of actualization of humans personal origin is described are considered, and also is given the estimation of sights of V. Frankl from a point of view of a range of the problems solved by psychology of the personality.
личность, свобода, ценности, Совесть, смысл, person, freedom, Values, conscience, meaning
Plato’s interest in vision and the visual is multifaceted, and complex. Visual words and images are frequent in the dialogues along with many direct and indirect discussions of physiological, intellectual, and social vision. The increased emphasis in recent scholarship on the importance of visuality in Plato is a part of a ‘scopic turn,’ the effect of which was to ground interpretations of the history of western European philosophy and metaphysics in its entirety in certain optical premises.
The author looks into the contradictions of security and the paradigms of their resolution in the modern era. The issue of security is considered in conjunction with the issue of justice. Emphasi is placed on the fact that the disharmony of the modern security paradigms is just temporary. As the global civil society is growing stronger, the paradigm of human rights must once again regain its priority. Just as in the case of the return of the multipolarity of the world, the paradigm of cooperation and non-intervention must get back the lost rights
There are shown situations when such ordinary things as a shop, a workshop, an insurance company, a long distance train, a clinic, a hospital, a stage scenery, some sport activity or military service, unfavorable ecologic or informational situations further the dependant condition of a person, in the article. Besides such person experiences not only psychological of physical discomfort, but such emotions, that ruin its nature, change the behavior, touch the soul, restrain the psyche, perturb the heart, the whole body. There are made several propositions of freedom infringement counteraction concerning every kind of exploitation, including the criminal law resistance to it.
There are analyzed the encountered in the title kinds of exploitation, uncovered its social danger and given the criminal legal characteristics, pointed out the ways of counteraction in the article. The author substantiates the conclusions concerning the freedom from such kinds of exploitation and the measures of combating encroachments on this freedom. There is shown the significance of the civil society institutions for the relevant areas of penal policy.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.