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Regular version of the site

Article

Consensus on the reporting and experimental design of clinical and cognitive-behavioural neurofeedback studies (CRED-nf checklist)

Brain. 2019.

After a protracted history, neurofeedback has begun to attract the attention and scrutiny of the scientific
and medical mainstream (Kamiya, 2011; Linden, 2014; Sitaram et al., 2017). A debate now centres on the
extent to which neurofeedback alters brain function and behaviour, and the mechanisms through which
neurofeedback operates (e.g., neurofeedback-specific versus nonspecific). A series of correspondences in
Lancet Psychiatry (Micoulaud-Franchi & Fovet, 2016; Pigott et al., 2017; Schönenberg et al., 2017b,
2017a; Thibault & Raz, 2016a, 2016b) and Brain (Fovet et al., 2017; Schabus, 2017, 2018; Schabus et al.,
2017; Thibault, Lifshitz, & Raz, 2017, 2018; Witte, Kober, & Wood, 2018) discusses the theoretical
arguments and empirical data backing the involvement of these two mechanisms.