“Commodity Sui Generis”: The Discourses of Soviet Political Economy of Socialism
The article traces trends in Soviet economic discourse from the 1920s until perestroika. We examine the works of leading political economists of this period through the lens of debates on market exchanges under socialism—the central theoretical issue of the political economy of socialism. The discursive structure underlying the debates can be traced back to the writing of the first Soviet textbook on political economy, personally supervised by Joseph Stalin. Our purpose is to assess the impact of this textbook on subsequent discussions of the role of commodity production and market exchanges in a socialist economy. The story suggests that Soviet economic discourse was neither homogeneous nor stable. Rather, it consisted of several subdiscourses of different levels of authoritativeness allowing for a certain stable core as an attribute of any authoritative discourse, as well as for more flexible elements that adjusted the structure to new political and ideological challenges.
This book explores the application of field theory (patterns of interaction) to Russian economic history, and how social and political fields mediate the influences of institutions, structures, discourses and ideologies in the creation and dissemination of economic thinking, theory and practice. Using focused cases on Russia's economy from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, Hass and co-authors expand the empirical basis of field studies to provide new material on Russian economic history. The cases are divided into two complementary halves: i) The role of fields of institutions, discourses, and structures in the development of Russian economic thought, especially economic theories and discourses; and ii) The role of fields in the real adoption and implementation of policies in Soviet and Russian economic history.
With developed discussion of fields and field theory, this book moves beyond sociology to demonstrate to other disciplines the relation of fields and field theory to other frameworks and methodological considerations for field analysis, as well as providing new empirical insights and narratives not as well-known abroad.
The article deals with the concept of the development of society as an innovative. The author puts forward the assumption of the formation of discursive anthropocentric economy, new predictive models of innovative communication.
The article presents a comparative study of the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic discourse in economics. Academic discourse in economics is defined as a variety of verbalized human actions, and includes written texts produced by professionals and intended for other professionals with the same or different expertise. There proves to be interdependence between conceptualization of special knowledge in discourse and metaphorization of discourse.
The present article aims to reveal the universal and divergent aspects of metaphor models of the concept GROWTH and to compare and contrast metaphor models of this concept in Russian and English academic texts on macroeconomics. To obtain a deeper insight into the cognitive mechanism of academic discourse in which professional communication may vary in the terms of professional competence, the author focuses only on the academic texts produced by professionals and intended for learners with a different expertise. Taking into account the specificity of economics as a field of knowledge and cultural differences, the author assumes that metaphor models of economic concepts reflect cultural premises of special knowledge conceptualization. The task is approached through a comprehensive analysis of conceptual metaphor models based on Metaphor Identification Procedure VU University Amsterdam (MIPVU).
Initially, the author explores metaphorical units in contexts which contain the lexeme ‘growth’ in Russian and English texts. In order to establish the contextual meaning, the author applies a practical and systematic method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse that addresses the way that the two conceptual structures (Source Domain and Target Domain) correspond. Then, by using the method of metaphoric modeling based on taxonomic categorization, the author builds a metaphoric model. Finally, she compares the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse.
Findings highlight the areas of commonality as well as divergence in the cultural terms represented in conceptual metaphors of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse. The main differences in the scope of the source analysis are quantitative rather than qualitative. The most representative metaphor model in the Russian discourse is the Human Being metaphor followed by Human Activity, whereas in the English discourse this is Human Being followed by Mechanism. The most detailed metaphor model of Human Activity representing the concept GROWTH is comprised of two similar models in both discourses such as the metaphors of Behavior and Struggle. However, the concept GROWTH in the Russian discourse is also represented through the Professional Activity metaphor, whereas its representation in the English discourse is through the Power metaphor, the Game metaphor and the Theater metaphor.
The status of business economic discourse is defined with the use of the French language material in the article below. Modus and submodus implementation is identified (spoken, written, electronic mail) and its genre typology is developed.
The chapter traces the history and reconstructs the logic of ownership debates in Soviet economic thought. Despite crucial role that ownership received in the Soviet economic literature, this concept predominantly was conceived legally thus making economic discourse inconsistent and dogmatic. Attempts to overcome this inconsistency by the leading schools of Soviet economic thought are considered and related to the broder contexts of ideological, political and economic discourses.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.