Enabling the Internet of Things With Wi-Fi Halow—Performance Evaluation of the Restricted Access Window
IEEE 802.11ah, a new amendment to the Wi-Fi standard, adapts Wi-Fi networks to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT). A key component of .11ah is the Restricted Access Window (RAW), a new channel access mechanism, which reduces contention when even thousands of IoT devices operate in the same area by assigning them different channel times. This paper shows that existing studies incorrectly understand the RAW behavior, oversimplify its modeling and thereby overestimate the real system throughput in several times, especially for short durations of the reserved RAW slots. The core contribution of this paper is a new mathematical model based on a completely different approach, which yields more accurate results and thereby enables better IoT system dimensioning. The developed model is suitable for many scenarios typical for IoT. It allows finding RAW parameters that optimize system performance in terms of throughput, power consumption, and packet loss ratio. The proposed solution is can be used for various traffic patterns: when each device transmits a single packet, a batch of packets of random size, or it has full-buffer traffic.
In Wi-Fi HaLow networks, sensors can transmit data only after the link set-up procedure (LSP). After a power outage or when a swarm of sensors appears in an Internet of Things network, all of them contend for the channel to set up links with the access point. For thousands of sensors the LSP can last for hours. However, it can be shortened with advanced LSP coordination algorithms. We show that the best standard-compatible solution found in the literature leaves a gap between the achievable link set-up time and the estimated lower bound. In this paper, we design and evaluate an adaptive solution to control the LSP that fills in this room for improvement and provides significant gains against the existing algorithms.
The recent Wi-Fi HaLow technology focuses on adopting Wi-Fi for the needs of the Internet of Things. A key feature of Wi-Fi HaLow is the Restricted Access Window (RAW) mechanism that allows an access point to divide the sensors into groups and to assign each group to an exclusively reserved time interval where only the stations of a particular group can transmit. In this work, we study how to optimally configure RAW in a scenario with a high number of energy harvesting sensor devices. For such a scenario, we consider a problem of device grouping and develop a model of data transmission, which takes into account the peculiarities of channel access and the fact that the devices can run out of energy within the allocated intervals. We show how to use the developed model in order to determine the optimal duration of RAW intervals and the optimal number of groups that provide the required probability of data delivery and minimize the amount of consumed channel resources. The numerical results show that the optimal RAW configuration can reduce the amount of consumed channel resources by almost 50%.
Wi-Fi HaLow is an adaptation of the widespread Wi-Fi technology for the Internet of Things scenarios. Such scenarios often involve numerous wireless stations connected to a shared channel, and contention for the channel significantly affects the performance in such networks. Wi-Fi HaLow contains numerous solutions aimed at handling the contention between stations, two of which, namely, the Centralized Authentication Control (CAC) and the Distributed Authentication Control (DAC), address the contention reduction during the link set-up process. The link set-up process is special because the access point knows nothing of the connecting stations and its means of control of these stations are very limited. While DAC is self-adaptive, CAC does require an algorithm to dynamically control its parameters. Being just a framework, the Wi-Fi HaLow standard neither specifies such an algorithm nor recommends which protocol, CAC or DAC, is more suitable in a given situation. In this paper, we solve both issues by developing a novel robust close-to-optimal algorithm for CAC and compare CAC and DAC in a vast set of experiments.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.