Russian Identity and the “Pivot to the East”: An Analysis of Rhetorical References to the American and Chinese “Others” in Political Elite Discourse
The article tests the extent to which Russia’s “pivot to the East” was supported by shared
visions of the American and the Chinese “Other” after the annexation of Crimea in 2014. It
compares representations of the United States and China as Russia’s Others in discourses of
Vladimir Putin, major political parties, and policy experts at a time when Russian–American
relations experienced a considerable downturn and relations with China surged. The method
of analysis is frames coding. The article demonstrates that for most of the actors considered,
the United States plays a much more important role as constitutive Other than China.
Under the influence of globalization, the status and functions of English in non-English -speaking countries (the so-called "expanding circle" countries) are changing. Global English is becoming part of the local communicative space and is increasingly used as an independent means of generating meaning. The aim of the present study is to investigate into the peculiarities of the perception of the English language in the Russian society and to describe its indexical capacities in three different "niches" of the Russian-speaking communicative space: professional communication, the area of science and education, and leisure area. An overall methodological approach taken in the research is that of the sociolinguistics of globalization: the view at of language as a mobile translocal resource and the ideological motivation of the construction of meaning. In the research a complex methodology was used, including methods of sociolinguistics, semantic interpretation and ethnographic methods; data from earlier studies were also used. The analysis showed that the indexical potential of the English language is realized differently in different areas of communication. In the professional sphere, use of English connotes professional competence and serves as a means of constructing a professional identity. In the academic environment, it indexes innovation and progress, it can be used as a "brand" and a means of "promotion" in project activities. In the sphere of leisure, anglicisms connote modernity, creativity and serve as a symbol of the global consumerist culture. English performs the function of constructing meaning explicitly (when English words are actually present in communication) and implicitly (by means of creating loans and "appropriating" English-speaking communicative norms). Along with this, English serves as a mediator in ideological transformations and shifts in the worldview, which can be considered a consequence of linguistic and cultural globalization.
The article starts with considering theoretical problems of the concept of the Other that points to the out-group in dialogical (co)relation with which the identity of the Self is constructed. This concept describes a fundamental and manifold phenomena that needs to be specified and classified. The author argues that a solution of theoretical issues about the figure of the Other lays in the field of empirical research. In particular, the issue of “significance” of the Other for constituting the Self could be decided only on the basis of systematic study of social practices that essentially rely on (co)relation with particular out-groups. Political rhetoric could be a good field for study of symbolic functions of the Other and factors that determine its significance.
Shared representations of the Other are not only an important element of identity construction but also an instrument of the symbolic politics, i.e. public activity aimed at production and dissemination / intrusion of competing visions of social reality. The article demonstrates how a study of patterns of representation of particular macro political communities allow to assess their relative “significance”. Basing on theoretical insights from the literature the author proposes a research method that includes manual coding of the frames of representation of the Other in the context of legitimization of political course with subsequent counting of their frequency added by discourse analysis of each group of frames. This method is tried on the case of comparative analysis of frames of representation of the American and Chinese Others in the rhetoric of the presidents of the Russian Federation (from 2000 to 2015).
The article presents a section of the Introduction to the author’s Ph.D. thesis (2000), which reviews the approaches to studying representations of the Other (hence the Other, as well) that by the late 1990s formed in post-colonial theory and the ‘historical turn’ within the context of the critique of Orientalism and ‘classical’ anthropology. The aims of this publication are, on the one hand, to recall the approaches themselves (nowadays dominant, they are still not always recognized in some Russian researchers’ spontaneous practices), and, on the other, to give an example — within the context of discussions on post-Soviet scholars’ attitudes to the afore-mentioned critique — of its interpretation by a post-Soviet ‘Africanist’ (at the time, the author was one). While highlighting the critique of cultural determinism and essentialism, the conceptualization of the ‘West’ and the ‘Orient’ as social constructs, the historical understanding of ‘culture’, as well as renouncing its inner coherence and accentuating multi-level, situational and individualizing analysis (trends new at that time even for those post-Soviet scholars who pursued cultural studies opposed to the orthodox Soviet scholarship), the author also indicated a shift in the approaches under study -- from a hermeneutic ‘understanding’ of the Other to questions of identity. In looking for a way to combine the presumptions of the historical turn and the endeavors of such understanding, she suggested viewing representations of the Other as a sort of cultural boundary where the notions of ‘we’ and ‘they’ are most fully articulated, thus revealing cultural categories that underlie the process.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.