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Article

Человек в бытии: программа гуманизации ничто в философии XX века

Человек. 2019. № 5. С. 76-85.

An unusual humanism associated with the philosophical category of «nothing» or «negativity» could be found in the 20th century, rich in philosophical insights. The «humanization of nothing» declared that the human being's should be sought in the depths of philosophical category of Nothing, rooted in Hegel's classic philosophy. The term «humanization» is often understood technically, implying that «nothing» is embodied in the human being. The idea of this incarnation is well documented, but in the present essay we would like to pay special attention to the humanistic context of the project. For nothing is humanized, it becomes the agent of the human being himself. It is about a person's ability to be: 1. conscious (we know the world as an existent observing it as a whole from nowhere, from non-existent), 2. acting (human activity denies the existence of the world, bringing a new one into it), 3. free (a person does what he does in a situation of fundamental uncertainty, literally creates nothing, because any of his actions may be possible). The combination of these abilities defines a human being as a being who denies any available state of affairs. Everything that is given by the natural world as a given can be radically transformed by human being in the course of human history. We would also like to consider how this type of humanism contrasted itself with naturalism, which was no less authoritative at the beginning of 20th century. In this article, we will look at the unexpected similarities between these two directions, as well as their apparent divergence.