The major challenge of local governments in the eight countries under review (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine) over the past twenty years has been adjusting to the narrowing role and size of government, and the resulting reduction in local resources, while attempting to maintain the high quality of social services provided at the local level during the Soviet period.
During the last years, positive trends have been seen in some countries in the field of decentralization. In Armenia, the list of local taxes and duties was enlarged in 2010. In Ukraine, the concept of Local Government Reform was recently approved, and a new framework for local self-government legislation is currently being developed. In 2010, Belarus adopted a law on Local Government and Self-government.
However, in other countries, centralization tendencies are being observed: a reduced level of tax autonomy in Russia, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia; a nomination of local self-government heads by the central government in Kyrgyzstan; the reorganization of local governments in Georgia; as well as limitations to expenditure autonomy of local governments in Russia.
The recent financial crisis has revealed weaknesses within the local finance system of some of the Eurasian countries, while in other countries local budgets seem to be doing better than central/regional ones due to their reliance on the most stable revenues sources.
Dissatisfied public employees put at risk the quality of service delivery. This study investigates pay dissatisfaction among a sample (N=501) of municipal employees in Russia’s Stavropol region. We find that pay dissatisfaction results from negative perceptions of public employment compensation, low levels of risk aversion, unethical professional attitudes, and more than 4 years of working experience. Our findings suggest that municipal employees are sensitive to multiple wage gaps within the public sector, and that upward pay comparisons are a relevant predictor of dissatisfaction with pay. We conclude that widespread pay dissatisfaction poses a serious threat to the implementation of federal programs and sustainable rural development in Russia.
The article is dedicated to the functioning of the law and local government system which was created by the Ottomans to control their Balcan lands. Local conflict management is considered in the multiethnic and multiconfessional environment. The paper also focuses on the synthesis of secular and Islamic traditions in Ottoman legislature, as well as the way law influenced the historical development of the Balcan nations.
This report analyzes the architecture of fiscal decentralization in one hundred and ten countries as well as in major metropolitan areas. In the majority of these countries, local authorities are taking on more and more responsibilities for public investment and the provision of services that are essential for both economic development and the well being of their citizens. If increasing fiscal decentralization has been a global trend in recent decades, there are significant variations across and within regions and countries. Local budgets make up on average 25% of public expenditure in the countries of the European Union but less than 5% in many developing countries. Decentralization in terms of revenue and expenditure autonomy has also increased, however this has been uneven across countries and has seen greater advances in expenditure than in revenues, where sources remain limited and uncertain, especially for small and middle size cities. With accelerating urbanization and important shifts in the global context (climate change, increasing risk of natural disaster, migration, and demographic changes among others), current funding levels are insufficient for local governments to respond to the urbanization of poverty, growing investment requirements and other pressing needs. The economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 only worsened the situation. This book identifies universal challenges facing local government finance, as well as those more regional and country specific. Some of the most common are inadequate sources of revenue, unpredictable transfers and grants, excessive higher-level budget controls, and unfunded mandates. In addition to analyzing these challenges and opportunities, the report proposes recommendations to strengthen the fiscal role and performance of local governments around the world.
In this article the method of credit rating models creation in the context of low default portfolios is presented as exemplified by rating model for local and regional governments of the Russian Federation. The authors also describe calibration process with use of the relevant formulas in an explicit form and prove them.
This SFI pamphlet provides a Policy Briefing on the critical and ubiquitous role being performed by benchmarking in public services both in the UK and internationally. It complements and partly draws on a special issue of Public Money and Management edited by me and Alan Fenna which also addresses these issues, and which includes some overlapping material treated in greater depth, and with comprehensive references (see Public services benchmarking and external performance assessment: An international perspective. Guest editors: Clive Grace and Alan Fenna (Vol. 33, No. 4, 2013) at http://www.tandfonline.com/r/pmm-benchmarking).
This book presents the proceedings of the symposium, organized in Bratislava by the Observatory on Local Autonomy (OLA-www.ola-europe. eu), in partnership with the Committee of Municipalities and Regions of Europe (CEMR: www.ccre.org) and with Comenius University of Bratislava (https://uniba.sk/en/) on the theme of “Metropolisation, regionalization and rural intermunicipality in Europe”. The Bratislava conference is the continuation of work begun in Vilnius, Bologna and Erlangen and Nuremberg. Territorial reforms are underway in many European States and the establishment or restructuring of regional levels of government and/or the creation of certain forms of metropolitan structures are at the heart of these reforms. Regardless of the historical context of these countries or of their current administrative organization, similar dilemmas and concerns have been raised at the European level. The themes of intermunicipal communication, discussed in this book, which includes metropolitanisation and rural cooperation, illustrates and reminds us the fact that, since the dawn of organised life in society, the basic level of local government has been the town level, and everything else was built up from there.
Centralized inspections face scepticism among local public managers, and voluntary evaluations have become a popular complement. This study uses the Swedish local government benchmarking programme (Kommunens Kvalitet i Korthet) to investigate what correlates with partaking in a benchmarking exercise empirically. This study finds evidence for temporal and spatial clustering: participants cluster geographically at an early stage of the exercise, new entrants tended to attach to existing clusters of participants rather than forming new clusters themselves. From event history analyses this study also finds that the proportion of participants among direct neighbours increases the conditional probability of entering the exercise. This suggests that public managers and local councils mimic the behaviour from nearby councils when it comes to the use of performance evaluations.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/