How the ICT development level and usage influence student literacy in reading, mathematics, and science
The main purpose of this study is to investigate how national ICT development level and individual ICT usage will influence achievements in reading, mathematics, and science for 4th and 8th grade school students. Large-scale international databases, including TIMSS 2011, PIRLS 2011, and PISA 2012, were employed in the current study. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were applied to examine both country- and individual-level variables. According to the findings of this study, the national ICT development level is a significant positive predictor for individual academic performance in all three subjects for both 4th grade and 8th grade students, while the national economic development level was controlled for. Such finding indicates a similar trend of the ICT influences for both groups, although there exists a difference in terms of the extent of the relationships. In addition, individual-level ICT use is a significant predictor, even if students' gender and socioeconomic status are controlled for; however, its influence is mixed across different student groups and subjects depending on the ICT usage type.
Collection of reports made at the session of the section «Methods of teaching of art Pushkin» of the International scientific conference «A.S. Pushkin and world culture». It consisted of scientific communications (E.S. Abelyuk, etc.), methodological developments (S.V. Ivanova, etc.), description of principles of the lesson (I.I. Shelapina, etc.).
Although previous studies addressed the role of school types for educational inequalities in Russia (Konstantinovskiy 2008; Roschina 2012; Prakhov 2014), they did not distinguish between the Boudon’s ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ effects of social background in securing educational advantage. Therefore it is likely that existing research has overstated the role of social background on educational success and educational pathways of Russian students. In our study, we attempt to bridge this gap by disentangling primary and secondary effects using recent longitudinal data on educational trajectories of Russian students and their prior achievements. We focus on (1) how institutional differentiation in secondary education interacts with social inequality and (2) whether it reinforces inequality of educational opportunities, including access to (quality) higher education.
The monograph presents the contributions of the participants of All-Russian scientific-practical conference with international participation devoted to discussion of problems of realization of the state educational policy in the field of formation of engineering culture of pupils in the conditions of modernization of education.
The paper provides an overview of studies dedicated to correlations between school teacher salaries and regional economics and to the local factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. The paper describes the basic teacher pay indicators in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, ratio of salary to the average consumer bsket and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on the calculations performed using open databases of governmental authorities, a classification of regions by teacher pay levels was developed, providing seven clusters of regions. For each of the clusters, we have elaborated recommendations on teacher remuneration, identifying typical risks and challenges. These recommendations are designed to improve efficiency of activities that are part of the education policy by way of differentiating federal assistance. The conclusion is that, apart from the index of teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, which is the benchmark of governmental programs, one should also consider the ratios of salary to the average consumer basket and to the per capita gross regional product.
This study examines territorial differences in Russian students' choice of educational trajectory after secondary school between 2000 – 2014, between regions in various socio-economic and cultural contexts. The Russian case might be interesting for the social and economic gap between Russian provinces, which is comparable to other countries differences: some regions, equal to Singapore or the Netherlands in GDP per capita, while others are similar to Honduras or Bolivia. These differences in economic development, among other things, are also associated with the gap in human capital, which is traditionally measured through the level of education of the population. In the Russian system of education, the actual choice of educational trajectory takes place at the end of secondary school, when children should choose between the academic track, which presumes admission to the high school and university after that, and the vocational track, which includes admission to vocational college. Since 2000th, the proportion of secondary school graduates, who chose the academic trajectory, has declined in most of the Russian regions, despite growing access to higher education, thanks to the raise in the number of universities between 2000-2008 with simultaneous demographic decline. With the dynamic time warping algorithm and time series cluster analysis, six different types of regional situations were identified, in the dynamics of the percentage of students who chose the academic track after secondary school. In general, in the most economically advantaged regions with a developed infrastructure of higher education, the popularity of the academic trajectory remains at the same high level. But also there were some decreases in 2009 and 2013, which could be a consequence of the world economic crises in those years. These crises became additional factors at the regional level, for the families in the more developed territories, to re-evaluate their children's chances for higher education and the associated costs. At the same time, the proportion of students on the academic track in more economically disadvantaged regions, with lower access to higher education, has gradually decreased since 2000. These students faced a “double penalty” because they had to plan their education strategy, taking into account higher competition for places in universities, or moving to other regions to enter educational institutions there, which was also associated with growing costs. In this situation, the vocational track becomes a more affordable alternative for students from regions with a lower level of economic and social development. As the result of the analysis, it is possible to determine short and long term prerequisites for further growth in the human capital gap between Russian regions and, consequently, the growing differences in economic development.
The paper estimates the relationship between public expenditure on secondary education and its quality. The investigation is based on regression analysis of cross-nationally comparable funding data and student performance metrics — PISA and TIMSS. The authors conclude that the growth of teachers’ salaries measured in absolute terms and public education expenditure per student have positive influence on educational achievement, though it is rather small. However, regression analysis has not revealed dependence of students’ performance on other financial indicators — public expenditure on secondary education as a percentage of GDP, public expenditure on secondary education as a percentage of total government expenditure and teachers’ salaries measured relative to average wages in the country.
From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious ‘eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series’ provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling, examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment.
Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality brings together a number of cross-national and country studies conducted by well-known experts in the field. In contrast to existing empirical research, this book reconstructs individuals’ educational careers step-by-step, providing a longitudinal perspective essential for an appropriate understanding of the dynamics of inequalities in secondary education. The international viewpoint allows for an illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, researchers and professional experts in the field, including sociologists, pedagogues, international political scientists and economists, and also serves as a major text for postgraduate and postdoctoral courses.