Packet Level Performance Assessment of mmWave Backhauling Technology for 3GPP NR Systems
The fifth generation wireless systems are expected to rely on a large number of small cells to massively offload traffic from the cellular and even from the wireless local area networks. To enable this functionality, mm-wave (EHF) and Terahertz (THF) bands are being actively explored. These bands are characterized by unique propagation properties compared with microwave systems. As a result, the interference structure in these systems could be principally different to what we observed so far at lower frequencies. In this paper, using the tools of stochastic geometry, we study the systems operating in the EHF/THF bands by explicitly capturing three phenomena inherent for these frequencies: 1) high directivity of the transmit and receive antennas; 2) molecular absorption; and 3) blocking of high-frequency radiation. We also define and compare two different antenna radiation pattern models. The metrics of interest are the mean interference and the signal-to-interference-plus-noise (SINR) ratio at the receiver. Our results reveal that: 1) for the same total emitted energy by a Poisson field of interferers, both the interference and SINR significantly increase when simultaneously both transmit and receive antennas are directive and 2) blocking has a profound impact on the interference and SINR creating much more favorable conditions for communications compared with no blocking case.
The main goal of this work is to present the developed research tool to find, investigate and analyze hidden dependences between parameters of the hardware/software platforms (such as influence of NUMA architecture, memory page size, etc) and the performance of block data processing algorithms. The new toolset (STAND) allows performance estimation and comparison of block data processing algorithms (for example, encryption/compression algorithms) running in kernel space. The primary application area of the developed technology and toolset is performance estimation and comparison of 'black box' libraries on particular hardware/software platform rather than research of mathematical or software implementation of algorithms. The main advantage of the presented toolset is that no source codes of algorithm implementation are needed (providing that an abstraction layer with known API is available). Linux operating system and computing nodes with ccNUMA architecture was selected as basic software/hardware platform. In this paper, the architecture of STAND is described. The methods for generating system load and comparison results for encryption algorithms AES (CBC), AES (CTR), and compression algorithms LZO, quicklz and bCodec are also presented.
Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom)
To satisfy the stringent capacity and scalability requirements in the fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, both wireless access and backhaul links are envisioned to exploit millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum. Here, similar to the design of access links, mmWave backhaul connections must also address many challenges such as multipath propagation and dynamic link blockage, which calls for advanced solutions to improve their reliability. To address these challenges, 3GPP New Radio technology is considering a flexible and reconfigurable backhaul architecture, which includes dynamic link rerouting to alternative paths. In this paper, we investigate the use of aerial relay nodes carried by e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to allow for such dynamic routing, while mitigating the impact of occlusions on the terrestrial links. This novel concept requires an understanding of mmWave backhaul dynamics that accounts for: 1) realistic 3-D multipath mmWave propagation; 2) dynamic blockage of mmWave backhaul links; and 3) heterogeneous mobility of blockers and UAV-based assisting relays. We contribute the required mathematical framework that captures these phenomena to analyze the mmWave backhaul operation in characteristic urban environments. We also utilize this framework for a new assessment of mmWave backhaul performance by studying its spatial and temporal characteristics. We finally quantify the benefits of utilizing UAV assistance for more reliable mmWave backhaul. The numerical results are confirmed with 3GPP-calibrated simulations, while the framework itself can aid in the design of robust UAV-assisted backhaul infrastructures in future 5G mmWave cellular.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.
I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables