Making a Bicycle City: Infrastructure and Cycling in Copenhagen since ca 1880
About the European bicycling: the politics of low and high culture: taming and framing cycling in twentieth-century Europe
From London and Paris to Barcelona and Berlin cities seek to boost cycling. Some cities manage to create a lasting result. In other cities, urban cycling hardly increases. This richly illustrated book shows why some capitals and business centers became real cycling cities, while others did not. The book analyzes 100 years of urban cycling‒policy, use, and practice in 14 European cities in 9 countries. It shows how policy makers, activists, and cyclists may make a difference. The book also includes unique illustrations (ca. 80), graphs (ca. 100), and maps (ca 15). Cycling Cities provides a fascinating new insight into 100 years of urban cycling in Europe. It analyzes 14 cities in nine countries, from the capitals Antwerp, Amsterdam, Budapest, Copenhagen, and Stockholm to the industrial hubs Eindhoven, Lyon, Manchester, and Southeast-Limburg, and the business towns Basel, Enschede, Hannover, Malmö, and Utrecht. The 14 case studies show how each of the urban areas developed its own unique cycling culture. Over the past century, local European policymakers curtailed or encouraged cycling by: building or demolishing cycling infrastructures; granting or denying cyclists’ rights to all roads; creating public transit systems in competition or in tandem with walking and cycling; and curbing or facilitating automobility. The authors trace the role of authorities and engineers as well as cyclists and community groups in shaping local cycling policies and practices. They show how these local outcomes featured in transnational debates on urban mobility and livability alongside traffic management and safety. They compare the urban areas' varying histories of embracing pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists Cycling Cities presents a long-term and transnational perspective for everyone interested in today's urban mobility, sustainability, and cycling. The book offers policymakers, community groups, politicians, scholars, and teachers new and usable insights in the patterns behind the development of urban traffic. The book is a must for any policymaker, student, or scholar interested in urban sustainable mobility. Cycling Cities is the first outcome of the international research and teaching program Sustainable Urban Mobility, 1890-present (SUM).
A joint research project carried out by an interdisciplinary group of Russian and Swedish linguists, sociologists and educators-psychologists (the Swedish Institute grant), besides solving pragmatic tasks of finding out relative quantitative-qualitative specificity of national cognitive representations of values, first of all, had methodological goals. They were to check the efficiency of the linguistic methods developed in this study (and, thus, to prove the theoretical ideas that served the basis for it) of getting factual data that allow reconstructing and comparing of the corresponding areas of cognitive representations.
This article studied the role of rulers’ honor to the relations between Russia and Sweden in 16th century. According to Posolskie books it is possible to understand that honor played an important role in these relations, the insult of ruler could become a casus belli, but some ambassadors could pretend to be humble if they wanted to achieve political goals.
This book examines how mobility was designed in the 20th century Europe. Martin's article is concerned about Interwar Sweden - the time when modern transports involved in our life strongly.