Коррекция самооценки здоровья в рамках профилактики реактивной астении у спортсменов 13-15 лет
Coping behaviour plays a great role in solving an interpersonal conflict. Time perspective, hardiness, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, and locus of control can be considered personality coping-resources. The combination of them and the degree of their intensity can be connected with the choice of specific coping strategies. Therefore, the goal of the research was investigating personality types of coping behaviour in an interpersonal conflict. The results of the empirical research (331 respondents) are given in this article. Classification of personality types showing various features of coping behaviour in a situation of an interpersonal conflict was the result of the research. Four personality types were differentiated - dependent, steady, unsteady and diffuse. The research allows us to suggest that the hardiness level has become the main factor in the choice of coping strategies. When it is not high, a person chooses emotional strategies, and strongly pronounced hardiness determines the choice of cognitive strategies.
This article reveals the specifics of social and cultural deformations in the life world of Russian people in general, compared to similar deformations among the population of several eastern regions of the country. These are territories representative of the Ural (Tyumen Province), Western (Tomsk Province) and Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Region). Social fears recorded within the “Regional socio-cultural portrait” method (Center for the Study of Social and Cultural Change, the Institute of Philosophy of the RAS) are considered to be factors of life world deformation. This study was carried out in the entire country of Russia in 2015, in Tyumen and Tomsk Provinces in 2016, in the Krasnoyarsk Region – in 2014. Three essential characteristics of life world – which have not been previously evaluated within this particular context – were highlighted for analysis: control locus, temporal stability (degree of pessimism/optimism) and life satisfaction as one of the key parameters of its harmony. The differences between the life world of Russians in general and that of those who inhabit the country’s eastern regions are determined within the context of the aforementioned characteristics. It is revealed that fears in the face of social dangers have a considerable deforming effect on the population’s life world. Determined are two types of deformations: nationwide and regional. The first type includes fears while facing ecologic threats and oppression due to age and gender. The latter’s level is generally much higher than the equivalent values obtained in the country’s three eastern regions. Fears while facing other sorts of threats and dangers, which are highlighted in the study, are considered to be specific regional deforming factors. The following conclusion is made: social fears deform the control locus, the harmony and temporal stability of the life world of the entire country’s population to a considerably greater degree compared to respondents from Tyumen and Tomsk Provinces, as well as the Krasnoyarsk Region. Revealed is a certain distinctive “Ural-Siberian” regional specificity of life world deformation, namely the sense that superiors in the workplace represent one of the social institutions of government. It is assumed that such specifics can be explained by regional frontier peculiarities.
In this study, the analysis of the current state of the problem of the relationship of personal characteristics and indicators of somatic health, as well as the mediation of this relationship procrastination. Within the framework of the biopsychosocial model, the features of behavior and lifestyle are presented as factors influencing health, the relationship of personal characteristics and behavior in the field of health is justified. The contradiction between cognitive and behavioral components of the attitude to health is revealed. The study of procrastination is proposed as one of the possible solutions to the problem of predictors and mechanisms of formation of such a contradiction. At this stage, the study involved 225 people aged 19 to 65 years (M=31.4; SD=9.06), 23 % – men. The measured indicators were: the overall level of procrastination, personality traits, attitude to health and its indicators, the index of delayed treatment. To conduct a comparative analysis, groups of people who lead a healthy lifestyle and those who are not inclined to lead a healthy lifestyle were formed (M=3.58, SD=1.07). As a result of the comparative analysis revealed differences between groups of people with more or less attention to their health (the tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle). People who lead a healthy lifestyle tend to actively cope with the disease: they appreciate their health condition, and in a situation of illness they are more likely to consult a doctor than ignore the deterioration of health. They have a General health indicator associated with extroversion, focus on communication and communication, low anxiety and emotional stability, confidence that their actions depend on the physical condition. Such results can be explained by the fact that, in a sense, procrastination and a healthy lifestyle can be different poles of the same continuum, because health care involves regular and timely implementation of certain actions to maintain their condition, and procrastination - on the contrary, the tendency to postpone these actions. However, we cannot talk about their opposite, because procrastination is a personal disposition, stable and manifested in a wide range of situations, and a healthy lifestyle is behavior, specific actions, including due to personal characteristics. Our results may indicate a binding and mediating role of procrastination.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine