Вовлечение учителей в продуктивную деятельность с учениками
The paper presents the results of the study of subjective qualities as a basis for effective development of schoolchildren's abilities in the learning process. The author proposes an approach to the interpretation of the concepts of a subject and subjectivity, outlines approaches to the development of particular models of subjectivity, determining the effectiveness of various activities. The paper presents the model of subjectivity, which is manifested in the development of students' abilities, as well as the results of its empirical testing. The given workmay be of interest both in theoretical and applied aspects. The results of the study are of high relevance to the educational systems aimed at maximum effective development of students, selection and further workwith gifted children.
With the development of digitalization and its pervasion in all spheres of social life general education runs against new challenges. Digitalization of general education can be regarded as a new level of development in polysubjective relationship against the backdrop of computerization and information technology development.
Talking about the education system reforms it is necessary to turn attention to the pedagogical aspects of digitalization taking into account potential acquisitions and risks.
Digitalization penetrates all spheres of education process relationship bringing new opportunities as well as concerns of both managerial and psychological-pedagogical nature.
Education process stakeholders – students, teachers, parents, administrative staff - beliefs about the value of ‘digital school’ in education may differ significantly and even be polar opposite which paves the way for transaction costs escalation and raises contextual risks in stakeholders relationship. To elicit effective ways of “moving towards digitalization” process it is helpful to consider its manifestation drawing on some narrow particular examples not overextending ourselves with ambitions of building a unified model of digital education.
This report focuses on one of the very particular but quite significant manifestations of digitalization – possible transformation of teacher-learner relationship when applying computer assisted training in the learning process.
The empirical data was obtained during the large-scale pedagogic experiment “Learn to learn”. The sample includes over 2 000 students from 41 schools of St.Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. The experiment has started in 2018. Basis of the project is a digital platform which facilitates diverse roles of different education process stakeholders – students, parents, psychologists, administrators of education organizations. The platform tracks learning activities about the learning process of the primary level of education learners. The ‘digital footprint’ is also available for the adults – teachers and parents, who accompany the learning process.
Empirical data analysis affords an opportunity to predict behavior and identify challenges in communication between different stakeholders, as well as shape model strategies in changing interaction rules of the teacher, the learner, the school and the family.
The report will present evidence collected during the “Learn to Learn” project. This evidence is intended to elicit how the agency of primary school learners may change and how through the prism of their self-esteem both learning and personal individual and collective concerns baffling effective learning process can be negotiated.
Transformation of the students attitudes towards their learning activity also should be accompanied by the transformation of the teacher’s role in the complex interplay “the learner – the digital device – the teacher”. The project evidence shows that the utmost progress is attained in the learning communities where the pedagogical support is efficiently organized.
Real cases from the two-years experiment of the education stakeholders relationship transformation in the digital context reveals the main problem – majority of teachers are not prepared for the "digital challenge”, not motivated for building new types of relationship, see no rationale neither necessity for digital competencies development.
The learning process with application of digital platforms imposes new requirements for the competency based portrait of a teacher as well as teacher’s digital literacy profile.
Combinatorial abilities are fundamental to experimental thinking. The aim of this work was to design didactic objects that will stimulate preschoolers’ experimental thinking and to study young children’s thinking in relation to these objects. Six heuristic rules for the design of didactic objects are specified, and the responses of 623 children aged between 3 and 7 to the didactic objects are described in this paper. The first two calculating devices required rods to be pressed simultaneously for successive windows to be lit up or made visible. A total of 30 five year olds played with these for 20 minutes, and were seen to perform a logical series of actions in order to understand the device’s function. Half of the children counted the presses and thereby understood the way the device functioned. The second device was designed to allow all possible combinations of four variables. Sixty children between the ages of 4 and 6 played with the device for 20 minutes. A total of 88% of the children found all possible combinations of the device, with no differences between age groups in the strategies used. The third device had a matrix of shutters opened by buttons arrayed along two edges. In the first mode, single buttons presses opened the nearest windows and button presses along both edges opened windows on coordinates determined by the two buttons. In the second mode, single button presses opened nothing and simultaneous button presses along two edges opened windows on coordinates determined by the two buttons. Ninety children between the ages of 5 and 10 played with the device in the second mode for 20 minutes. The children used scientific strategies to discover the device’s function in the following proportions: 20% at five years, 50% at six years and 93% at 10 years. Eighteen children between the ages of 4 and 6 played with the device in the second mode. They played in pairs, and each child was assigned a row of buttons, thus requiring co-operation to open the windows requiring two coordinated button presses. All the children were eventually successful in the joint experimentation. The fourth device had 16 windows and eight buttons, which lit up the windows when pressed in logical combinations. A total of 20 five-year-old children were trained on this device to use combinations of button presses to light up selected windows. These children were then allowed to explore the third device in second mode by themselves. The trained five year olds all used scientific strategies in their search for the third device’s combinations. The study showed that preschoolers can combine actions and discover hidden relationships, and that the didactic objects can be used to develop children’s thinking.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.