A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Episodic Memory
In the past decade, several studies have examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on long-term episodic memory formation and retrieval. These studies yielded conflicting results, likely due to differences in stimulation parameters, experimental design and outcome measures.
In this work we aimed to assess the robustness of tDCS effects on long-term episodic memory using a meta-analytical approach.
We conducted four meta-analyses to analyse the effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS on memory accuracy and response times. We also used a moderator analysis to examine whether the size of tDCS effects varied as a function of specific stimulation parameters and experimental conditions.
Although all selected studies reported a significant effect of tDCS in at least one condition in the published paper, the results of the four meta-analyses showed only statistically non-significant close-to-zero effects. A moderator analysis suggested that for anodal tDCS, the duration of the stimulation and the task used to probe memory moderated the effectiveness of tDCS. For cathodal tDCS, site of stimulation was a significant moderator, although this result was based on only a few observations.
To warrant theoretical advancement and practical implications, more rigorous research is needed to fully understand whether tDCS reliably modulates episodic memory, and the specific circumstances under which this modulation does, and does not, occur.
In the modern globalized world almost all the transactions involve a foreign element which inevitably leads to the disputes arising in a foreign country. This is old news for Russian citizens and companies who find themselves more often than ever in the middle of litigation abroad. However, lawyers are well aware that winning a lawsuit is not the end – seeking recognition and enforcement of the judgment is the next step. Enforcing judgments in Russia is a tricky business, the one that many are not ready to encounter. Although Russia is a party of about thirty agreements on mutual recognition of the foreign judgments, there are no such agreements with major European countries or America. In such cases, the principles of comity and reciprocity come into play. Even if there is a legal basis for recognition, then when is the court allowed not to recognize or enforce it? Russian foreign policy does reflect the need for establishing a new level of connection with the countries of the world community by enhancing economic, trade and cultural relations. As a prerequisite for this though, Russian legislation must adequately protect the rights and legitimate interests of foreign partners. Certainty of a result is what attracts businessmen, especially foreign investors. Therefore, the law on recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments (hereinafter - REFJ) must lead to a stable and predictable outcome. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the current Russian legislation, judicial decisions on REFG as well as writings of scholars on the existing problems obstacles and problems. Moreover, here will be discussed the peculiarities of the law of the United States of America on the recognition and enforcement of foreign-country judgments.
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References to the problem of the End of History are not infrequent in various political, cultural and philosophic discussions. This notion is often postulated as something quite apparent or as something of great influence and which nevertheless both are attemted to be refuted. The purpose of the paper is to follow philosophic roots of this conception and observe conditions and stages in its development.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
The paper uses meta-analysis to investigate the evolution of returns to education in Russia during the economic transition. We present the evidence of strong increase in returns to education in the 1990s. The returns to education peaked at 8% per additional year of schooling in the early 2000s. Since the mid-2000s the positive trend has been reversed. We find that the estimated returns are sensitive to sample design, specification and estimation methods. On average the estimated returns are higher if one uses imputed (instead of actual) years of education and estimates earnings equation with the OLS. Among covariates, the form of ownership and settlement type (urban/ rural) has the largest effect on the estimated returns to education. Regional variables have significant impact on the estimated returns only being included into the earnings equation at the oblast (province) level.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.