"Научное родительство”? Что волнует родителей и какими источниками информации они пользуются
We discuss the current socio-cultural situation surrounding parenthood on the basis of an extensive literature review. A distinction is drawn between the constructs of “parenthood” as a social role and “parenting” as a process of raising children. We describe the main social trends: Modern parenthood is analyzed and problematized in connection with the specific features of the modern challenges faced by young educated parents. These trends include the following: the disappearance of understandable models of how to raise children in a family that were taught to parents when they were themselves children, the explosion in the number of ways in which a family can be raised, and a growing number of parenting products and services. All of these factors are symptoms of the decline of “natural” parenting and its replacement by a set of consciously planned strategies. The article shows that as educated members of the population refer to expert knowledge to guide them as parents, it gives rise to a new level of uncertainty due to the fact that the recommendations that are given are inconsistent with each other. A discussion of the transformations in family and upbringing practices shows that they have evolved from a child-centric model to an adult-centric one. Thus, we provide supporting evidence for the conclusion that modern parents raise children against the backdrop of many (perceived and unconscious) contradictions, including, in particular, the one between the growing importance placed on career and life success and the continuing value placed on parenthood, which cannot but affect the parent’s experiences. The growing interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy represents a promising research area.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.