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Article

Мемориализация «негативного наследия» в современной России на материале лагерных музеев в Пермском крае

Стаф В. С.

The article is devoted to the history of the formation of museums in the places of the former Gulag camps in the Perm region, primarily the "Memorial complex of the history of political repressions" in Kuchino village, better known as "Perm-36". The conditions of its creation and conflicts around the museum are considered, continuing until the change of its leadership in 2013. Drawing on the experience of working with the "negative heritage" in Europe after World War II, the article demonstrates the features of preserving and using such resources in Russia by the example of the Perm region, where were preserved the remains of the former Gulag camps. Unlike Germany and Poland, where the places of former Nazi concentration camps were turned into museums and memorial complexes as early as the late 1940s, Russia began to work with the legacy of the Gulag only after the collapse of USSR. In post-Soviet Russia, Stalinist camps are almost not preserved: most of them have collapsed from time, and the surviving buildings are most often at a distance from populated areas, especially in the north and north-east of Siberia. The main emphasis is the role played by former prisoners, guards and historians in creating museums. The article traces the differences in the perception of Stalinist repressions among the participants in the process of memorialization. So, in response to the creation in 1994 of the memorial complex "Perm-36" on the site of the former Gulag camp, where the Stalinist repressions and the Gulag were shown from the standpoint of the victims, on May 9, 1998, on the site of another previous camp in the village of Tsentralny was established another museum, its exposition tells the story of the correctional institutions and the camp schedule from the point of view of personnel and employees of the state correctional system. Prisoners in it are considered exclusively as criminals, regardless of the article on which they were convicted. Despite the fact that "Perm-36" in its structure is an analogue of the memorial museums on the sites of the former concentration camps of Nazi Germany, the approaches and conditions for its creation were completely different. In Europe, most of the former camps were restored and museumed at the expense of the Ministry of Culture of Germany, Poland and other countries where the concentration camps were located, while in Russia these were private proposals from below. This leads to the fact that the "different memories" of people about the Soviet camps of the Gulag system are represented differently in museums, reflecting opposing views and assessing the events of that time.