A multicolour graph as a complete topological invariant for Ω-stable flows without periodic trajectories on surfaces
Studying the dynamics of a flow on surfaces by partitioning the phase space into cells with the same limit behaviour of trajectories within a cell goes back to the classical papers of Andronov, Pontryagin, Leontovich and Maier. The types of cells (the number of which is finite) and how the cells adjoin one another completely determine the topological equivalence class of a flow with finitely many special trajectories. If one trajectory is chosen in every cell of a rough flow without periodic orbits, then the cells are partitioned into so-called triangular regions of the same type.
A combinatorial description of such a partition gives rise to the three-colour Oshemkov-Sharko graph, the vertices of which correspond to the triangular regions, and the edges to separatrices connecting them. Oshemkov and Sharko proved that such flows are topologically equivalent if and only if the three-colour graphs of the flows are isomorphic, and described an algorithm of distinguishing three-colour graphs. But their algorithm is not efficient with respect to graph theory. In the present paper, we describe the dynamics of Ω-stable flows without periodic trajectories on surfaces in the language of four-colour graphs, present an efficient algorithm for distinguishing such graphs, and develop a realization of a flow from some abstract graph.