Non-Dialogic Relationship to the Other: Regress or Opposition to Dialogicity
The study presented in this paper is focused on the development of theoretical models of the dialogic and non-dialogic nature of the personal relationship to the Other. Based on the philosophical and psychological research of the dialogue (M. M. Bakhtin, M. Buber, J. Sartre, E. Levinas, H. J. M. Hermans, T. Maranhao, M. Puchalska-Wasyl, F. Rivetti Ваrbo, T. Zittoun), the author emphasizes the involvement of the individual in various forms of activity that, due to personal efforts, acquire a dialogical character. The “personality’s attitudes toward significances” stand out among these forms, including the relation to another significant person. It is emphasized that the attitude of a person towards a significant Other can either gain or not a dialogical character under conditions that are to be discovered in fundamentally new research. This work involves the experience of studying dialogue in various sciences and takes into account psychological ideas and facts of relevance to individual dialogicity. The author develops an understanding of dialogue as a complete realization of the relation to the Other in the dimensions between-I-and-Other, I-in-Other, Other-in-I, and I-in-self-with-Other. The study is focused on the I of the personality as a subject in the relation to the Other; the role of reflection in the I-Other dialogue is justified; the conditions for the non-dialogical nature of the relationship, as an alternative way to the dialogue to implement it, are revealed. Non-dialogicity, which rarely happens to be the subject of psychological research, firstly can be defined as one of the possibilities for the formation of an attitude; secondly, as a regress of the dialogical attitude; thirdly, as a binary opposition present in the conscious plane, or “in the shade” of the dialogical dynamics of the attitude; fourthly, as a trend that conflicts with dialogicity in favour of the development of dialogue. Following the multilateral view on the genesis of dialogicity/non-dialogicity in the personality’s relation to the Other, a number of theoretical models have been developed: a model of the dialogic attitude to the significance; models the I in the context of a dialogical attitude; the existential model of regression in the dialogicity of the I-Other relation; a model of personal prerequisites of non-dialogicity in relation to the I-Other; a model of oppositions to dialogicity in the dimensions of the I-Other relation. It is assumed that the non-dialogical aspect in the relationship to the Other can become a subject of the problematization of self for the I in self-knowledge or in counselling, which leads to positive transformations of the relationship.