(Не)политкорректная лексика в немецко-русском словаре: принципы отбора и лексикографического описания
The review presents the analysis of the content and linguo-cultural and philosophical investigation approaches to the categories of tolerance and political correctness, along with the main directions, trends and priorities for the development of relevant categories research in Russian and world science. The need to develop a tool to measure tolerance has recently appeared on the agenda of the Russian scientific community. While emphasizing the relevance of the language used by mass media and politicians, political scientists, sociologists, ethnographers, historians, register the manifestation of ethnic, racial, religious tolerance or intolerance in the language, thus directly or indirectly provoking aggression. It is known Вопросы психолингвистики 4 (38) 2018 217 Романова Т.В. Информационный обзор: категории толерантность... that the notions of “security” and “geopolitics” also correspond to the sociopolitical and sociolinguistic parameters of intolerant speech behavior: they position “the Other” as a threat to the basic values that define the collective identity, and therefore derive these values from the political sphere. In the context of solving problems of ethno-confessional security, countering xenophobia and developing tolerance in multi-ethnic and multi-religious Russia, it is necessary to regard tolerance as a cultural, psychological, political phenomenon. At the same time, the approach embracing linguistic phenomenon of tolerance via culture of speech, stylistics, rhetoric, communication theory, discursive practices, and assessment has not been sufficiently investigated. The review refers to studies devoted mainly to the linguistic aspect of tolerance, in which communicative technologies of tolerance are identified; the present-day cultural situation in the Russian Federation is measured and analyzed.
The article is based on observations made while working on Academic German-Russian Dictionary. Modern dictionaries are mostly based on the earlier publication, so a substantial part of the work on updating the dictionary is to overcome its inertia. The study deals with specific mechanisms for updating all parts of the dictionary entry. The example of lexicorgaphic processings of neologisms shows the principles of including new lemmas into academic bilingual dictionaries. It is emphasized that the actual frequency is not yet a sufficient basis for the lexicographic fixation of the "trendy" word in the academic dictionary. The word has to demonstrate stable frequency of use for several years. In the article, the principles of dictionary fixing of changes in the semantic structure of a word are discussed in detail. Based on the concept of lexicographical equivalence, the autors show how to update the translation part of the dictionary entry.
The article deals with tolerance and political correctness as the linguacultural phenomena and social regulators. The correlation between the content of these concepts and lexical-semantic, linguacultural, cognitive points of view on them is set in this article. The manipulative potential of these social regulators is also determined.
Examination of the mentioned terms includes its lexical and semantic analysis. Analysis of Russian National Corpus also helps to reveal the most frequency compatibility and contexts of use of these terms. The analyzed categories are considered in opposition tolerance - intolerance; political correctness - political incorrectness.
The phenomenon of tolerance is qualified from cognitive point of view: 1) as a complex (matrix) format of interdisciplinary knowledge with socio-cultural basis; 2) as a concept of culture (the basis of formation of communicative / modus categories), which has a speech and language representation. In addition, tolerance is analyzed as a communicative category, and as a type of verbal behavior.
In the end the author concludes that tolerance is the content, the principle and basis of social regulators, and political correctness - verbal form of its manifestation. The principle of tolerance is the ideological basis of political correctness and politically correct language.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.