Political Regimes, Income and Health: Evidence from Sub-National Comparative Method
This paper investigates the effect of political regimes on healthcare outcomes with a novel approach. Instead of focusing on cross-country comparisons, like most studies do, we utilize the within-country variation of political regimes across individual regions. We use the case of the Russian Federation, where large sub-national differences exist in both health outcomes and political regimes in different provinces. General differences in sub-national politics in Russia have been subject of investigation of a large literature our paper adds to. The paper shows that the effect of political regimes on health is heterogeneous and depends on the type of health problems more salient for the region. More pluralist and competitive regimes are able to produce better results than the less competitive ones in rich regions, while in poor regions political pluralism and competition have an adverse impact on health.
Seventeen papers, originally presented at a conference held in honor of Erik Thorbecke at Cornell University in October 2003, highlight the depth and breadth of Thorbecke's influence in research and policy on poverty, inequality, and development. Papers discuss the growth and roots of Erik Thorbecke's career; the consistency of poverty lines; poverty indices; whether poverty and inequality measures should be combined; an approach to measuring health inequality in India; household investments in education and income inequality at the community level in Indonesia; poverty traps and safety nets; progress in the modeling of rural households' behavior under market failures; labor laws and labor welfare in the context of the Indian experience; macro models and multipliers; multiplier effects and the reduction of poverty; developing an accounting matrix for the euro area; globalization, economic reform, and structural price transmission--social accounting matrix decomposition techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam; institutions, factor endowment, and inequality in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal; an optimal nonlinear taxation approach combining incentives, inequality, and the allocation of aid when conditionality doesn't work; agricultural research and policy to achieve nutrition goals; and whether dualism is worth revisiting. No index.
Data from three rounds of nationally representative health surveys in India (1992/93, 1998/99, and 2005/06) are used to assess the impact of selective mortality on children's anthropometrics. The nutritional status of the child population was simulated under the counterfactual scenario that all children who died in the first three years of life were alive at the time of measurement. The simulations demonstrate that the difference in anthropometrics due to selective mortality would be large only if there were very large differences in anthropometrics between the children who died and those who survived. Differences of this size are not substantiated by the research on the degree of association between mortality and malnutrition. The study shows that although mortality risk is higher among malnourished children, selective mortality has only a minor impact on the measured nutritional status of children stratified by gender.
Presents a guide to the two health modules included in the World Bank's ADePT analysis software. Discusses what the ADePT health outcomes module does; data preparation; an example data set; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; technical notes; what the ADePT health financing module does; data preparation; example data sets; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; and technical notes. Index.
An important role of digital inequality for hindering the development of civil society is being increasingly acknowledged. Simultaneously, differences in availability and the practices of use of social network sites (SNS) may be considered as major manifestations of such digital divide. While SNS are in principle highly convenient spaces for public discussion, lack of access or domination by socially insignificant small talk may indicate underdevelopment of the public sphere. At the same time, agenda differences between regions may signal about local problems. In this study we seek to find out whether regional digital divide exists in such a large country as Russia. We start from a theory of uneven modernization of Russia and use the data from its most popular SNS “VK.com” as a proxy for measuring digital inequality. By analyzing user activity data from a sample of 77,000 users and texts from a carefully selected subsample of 36,000 users we conclude that regional level explains an extremely small share of variance in the overall variation of behavioral user data. A notable exception is attention to the topics of Islam and Ukraine. However, our data reveal that historically geographical penetration of “VK.com” proceeded from the regions considered the most modernized to those considered the most traditional. This finding supports the theory of uneven modernization, but it also shows that digital inequality is subject to change with time.
HEALTH AND REPRODUCTION ATTITUDES OF THE STUDENTS (RUSSIAN AND BELARUSIAN UNIVERSITIES) (review article) The article considers the issues of health, health behavior, attitudes to abortion and children planning, as well as the reproduction attitudes of students of the Russian and Belarusian universities.
The monograph is devoted to the assessment of population health indicators and comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing on the health of indigenous people of Russian North.
This paper studies the influence of various health indicators on the position in the labor market. The source used in the research is the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for the period 2000-2008. We analyze the factors related to individuals decision on whether to look for a job or to give up seeking. For those willing to be employed, the duration model is estimated and the impact of health indicators on the individuals probability to get a job and leave the labor force is revealed.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.