Introduction: BRICS in Search of Governance Models
The comparative analysis of systems of Ggovernance in BRICS countries is described. The main principles of such an analysis are to compare in details some aspects of the reforms of governance, including: main challenges; history of reforms; actors of reforms; main elements and areas of reforms.
This article discusses the process of reforming the executive authority in the Russian Federation in the period from 1990s to 2000s paying the attention to advocacy coalitions participation. Authors are wondering what could be done to make the reform of the state apparatus real, not imitation? Based on interviews and secondary data, the authors consistently consider administrative reform steps, focusing on the initiators’ of change objectives and the presence or absence of advocacy coalitions. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that the reformers gradually came from non-public work on the reform to the realization that it is necessary to expand the composition of the actors involved in the process and to include representatives of civil society and the expert community. However, for various reasons, the full inclusion of NGOs, experts and the media in the process did not occur that had a negative effect on the results of reform.
The combination of two reforms in Russia, reform of public-sector entities and of public procurement, enables us to estimate the results of a transition from rigid to more flexible regulations in public procurement (PP). We consider two public universities in 2011–2012. The procurements of one university were regulated by rigid Federal Law during the entire period; the procurements of the other university were regulated by Federal Law until June 2011 and then by a more flexible regulation. Using the difference-in-differences methodology, we assess how the transition to this new regulation affects the main PP parameters. We show that more flexible regulation leads to a decline in bid competition but improves contract execution.
The subtitle of the book concretizes the object of study. In the preface, one of the compilers of the collection, Anton Oleinik, a senior fellow at the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, explains: "The term" postsocialist reforms "is used to describe attempts to implement changes in the most diverse spheres of Eastern European countries and countries formed on the territory of the former USSR." At the dawn of post-communist transformations, everything seemed extremely simple: to move towards democratization in the political sphere, to a full-fledged market in the economy and to an open society in the social sphere. However, as early as the second half of the 1990s, it became obvious that good intentions were being broken about unforeseen difficulties. It is to these difficulties, deviations from harmonious theoretical constructions, that the articles included in the book are devoted. The international team of authors, including American, English, Canadian, German, Bulgarian and Russian scientists, is the undoubted advantage of this book before others. The reading public in Russia is overfed with analytical products of domestic experts, while the outside view has a charm of novelty.
The chapter aims at tracing the influnce of the Enlightenment ideas on the policies, political culture and reforms in 18th century European countries.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.