Фандрайзинг в российских НКО: взгляд исследователя
In this second edition of this immensely successful volume, Lester Salamon and his colleagues offer an overview of the current state of America’s nonprofit sector, examining the forces that are shaping its future and identifying the changes that might be needed. This edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect changing political realities and the punishing economic climate currently battering the nonprofit sector, which faces significant financial challenges during a time when its services are needed more than ever.
Analyzes the impact of large-scale economic, political, and demographic forces on various segments of the nonprofit sector.
After the economic and ideological changes of the 1990’s older people in Russia have shifted to become the most vulnerable, poor and disrespected group in the country’s population. However, despite the slowly recovering birth rate and low life expectancy, the older population is predicted to constitute almost a quarter of the Russian population (24.8%) in 2016.
However, so called “people’s universities” have long been part of the Soviet tradition and were renewed mostly for the education for older people in the post-Soviet era. Mostly they are supported by non-profit organisations and offer informal education on a range of topics and crafts. These programmes have proved to be enjoyed by older learners and are recognised to be major contributors to active ageing in Russia. Nevertheless, their numbers and capacities are not sufficient to respond to the variety of needs and interests of older people. At the same time large formal educational institutions such as universities do not usually consider the older population to be a target audience for their programmes.
Nevertheless, some political steps have been made by a few Russian regions. This article reports on a national survey of University of the Third Age-type provision for older people in eight cities nationwide. For example, in the Republic of Bashkortostan a region-wide governmentally sponsored programme, “Third Age Universities for All”, came into operation in 2011. A small survey of U3A students in one city is reported. It suggests that while the programme needs to be amended in many ways, it sets a worthwhile precedent and hopefully will be followed by other regions.
This paper aims to find nonprofit organizations place in Russian economy. Using national and regional data on nonprofit organizations, the author explores the Russian nonprofit sector structure and changes in output of Russian NPO. The findings reveal, firstly, the concentration of these organizations in club goods provision and advocacy fields, whereas there is services-dominant nonprofit sector in many developed countries. Secondly, NPO output figures demonstrate significant fluctuations and a marked decrease of nonprofit share of services production. Thirdly, it is assumed that NPO in Russian Federation regions are strongly influenced by specific factors causing significant differences in their development.
In this new, fully revised edition of America’s Nonproﬁt Sector, renowned author Lester Salamon clariﬁes the scope, structure, ﬁnances, and operation of the nonproﬁt sector and examines how it has changed over time, both generally and in major ﬁelds like health care, education, arts, and religion.
The article focuses on the relationship between NGO sources of funding, including the number of funding sources, on one hand, and the evaluation of NGO effectiveness and their economic situation, on the other hand. Based on the all-Russia NGO survey, the author concludes that most NGOs in Russia tend to diversify their funding sources. NGO leaders tend to evaluate the activity of their organizations more positively in direct correlation with the number of funding sources. The more diversified funding sources are the higher rating NGO effectiveness receives. The level of NGO transparency and reporting requirements in compliance with requirements of specific funding sources also influence the evaluation of NGO effectiveness. In terms of NGO economic situation, three to four sources of funding can be considered ideal. However, tapping this many funding sources may hamper the mission of an NGO owing to the fundraising activity of its leader. In this connection, the article provides a number of recommendations to improve the effectiveness of seeking and accumulating funds from different sources by NGOs for the implementation of their projects and programs.
Contribution to major analytical volume on the nonprofit sector in the US, providing comprehensive overview of roles of nonprofit in core service areas as well as broad trends in the sector.