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## Highest weight sl_2-categorifications II: structure theory

This paper continues the study of highest weight categorical sl_2-actions started in part I. We start by refining the definition given there and showing that all examples considered in part I are also highest weight categorifications in the refined sense. Then we prove that any highest weight sl_2-categorification can be filtered in such a way that the successive quotients are so called basic highest weight sl_2-categorifications. For a basic highest weight categorification we determine minimal projective resolutions of standard objects. We use this, in particular, to examine the structure of tilting objects in basic categorifications and to show that the Ringel duality is given by the Rickard complex. We finish by discussing open problems.

In this paper, we propose an axiomatic definition for a tensor product categorification. A tensor product categorification is an abelian category with a categorical action of a Kac-Moody algebra g in the sense of Rouquier or Khovanov-Lauda whose Grothendieck group is isomorphic to a tensor product of simple modules. However, we require a much stronger structure than a mere isomorphism of representations; most importantly, each such categorical representation must have standardly stratified structure compatible with the categorification functors, and with combinatorics matching those of the tensor product. With these stronger conditions, we recover a uniqueness theorem similar in flavor to that of Rouquier for categorifications of simple modules. Furthermore, we already know of an example of such a categorification: the representations of algebras T^λpreviously defined by the second author using generators and relations. Next, we show that tensor product categorifications give a categorical realization of tensor product crystals analogous to that for simple crystals given by cyclotomic quotients of KLR algebras. Examples of such categories are also readily found in more classical representation theory; for finite and affine type A, tensor product categorifications can be realized as quotients of the representation categories of cyclotomic q-Schur algebras.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.