Профессиональная самоорганизация в сфере оказания медицинских услуг в России
Russian professional associations have passed all the stages of institutionalization and stopped at the stage of establishing of legitimate self-regulation system. Professional associations aimed to unite professionals and manage them were created at different periods. There is a set of restrictions for the cooperation of professional associations and professionals, including an association’s leaders competition and professionals disagreement to join an organization that will manage all the associations and all professionals. The research is based on an analysis of interviews with the leaders of professional associations, and content analysis of information resources professional organizations
The professions and professionalism are a set of institutional practices that have adapted and changed in face of societal and economic transformations. The managerialist responses to current economic and financial crises coupled with developments in science and technology have all impacted on work organizations and labour markets - regionally and globally – and challenged our understanding of the professions and professionalism. The professions continue to capture our interest, for they have adapted and extended beyond their traditional base predominantly within the welfare state to also apply to new occupations and careers, including information and communication technologies, media and culture and human services. The concept of professionalism has also been subjected to a revision with the emphasis now more on responsibility and less on the traditional assumption of autonomy. This newer approach has particular relevance to the issues of governance and regulation and for our understanding of contemporary developments in organizational leadership and management. These changes are happening globally, raising questions around global and local knowledge and power. These developments are shaping the research on the new as well as established professions and led to a rethinking of our understanding of the professions and professionalism. This Companion aims to provide a prestigious reference work that will offer students, researchers and educators alike an introduction to current scholarship on the sociology of the professions including their relations to work organization and management. The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism will provide the state-of-the-art compilation that will map out the current developments and debates globally. This will be underpinned with a comparative history of the evolution in the theory and practice of the professions and professionalism and provide the basis for conclusions as to the main elements for the future research agenda
The book discusses the various aspects of the theory, methodology and history of professional groups studies and professional cultures in Russia and abroad. Special attention is paid to the establishment of sociology of professions as an independent sociological discipline in the Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Also, a classification of the main theoretical trends in sociology classes and professions, including classical and modern ideas and theories about various aspects of professionalism - the role of special knowledge, methods of internal self-organization of communities, professional culture and the broader institutional and social context. The book contains the results of empirical studies of copyright occupations and professions, including engineering plant workers, engineers, tennis players, professionals and academic sociologists working the field of public opinion research. For social scientists, university professors and students of sociological specialties, as well as for all interested in the history and sociology theory, and the sociology of occupations and professions.
This article analyzes the professional culture of the Russian technical specialists - engineers, programmers, and so on. The article is based on data from a series of semi-formalized interviews with Russian technical experts. The theoretical frame of this study includes articles by Soviet and Russian sociologists, in which researchers studied the identity of Soviet scientific and technical intelligentsia. Another important source is a publication of G. Kunda, P. Meiksins on engineering culture and professionalization of engineers. A separate topic of the article is the definition of a professional culture that includes values, norms of behavior, Slang, common social practices and professional ethics. The Professional culture of Russian technical experts contains a number of elements. First, rationality and system thinking is the result of technical education. Secondly, masculinity is part of the professional culture of the technicians. Thirdly, the technicians are working hard and well. Fourth, the creative involvement is important for technicians in their work. Also, the organizational context affects the culture of professional technicians.
The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism is a state-of-the-art reference work which maps out the current developments and debates around the sociology of the professions, and how they relate to management and organizations. Supported by an international contributor team specializing in the disciplines of organizational studies and sociology, the collection provides extensive coverage of this field of research. It brings together the core concepts and issues, and has chapters on all the key aspects of professions in both the public and private sectors, including issues of governance and regulation. The volume closes with a set of international case studies which provide valuable practical insights into the subject.
This article analyzes the types of professional communication of Russian engineers in the context of their professional culture. The analysis showed the important role of the Internet, which is an important source of new knowledge for engineers and reduces the role of literature for professional knowledge. Informal communication and communication in the process of playing a major role in the transfer of professional knowledge within the community of engineers. Organizational environment has low impact on the updating of knowledge of technicians. Article Submissions are based on the results of an online survey of Russian engineers and interviews with technicians.
The paper delivers a piece of research on the Moscow Bar Association laying a particular stress on the problem of the social and religious profile as well as the educational trajectories of its members. The paper employs the data from a vast array of primary sources, including the personal records of Moscow University students and a number of pre-revolutionary statistical surveys.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.