Assertive Foreign Policy of Great Powers in the Framework of Realism
The paper aims to analyze foreign policies of great powers premised upon not so much on the ideological basis of justice but on execution of their own military strategies to obtain political and economic interests in the Post-Cold war era. Then, it studies the outcomes of the US ‘extension of democracy’ political course and the current state of relations between China, Russia and the US. Arguably, foreign policies of great powers are based not so much on the ideological foundation of justice but have been shaped by their political, economic and security priorities. Intergovernmental relations without moral and ethical standards can cause future conflicts as exemplified by Georgian events in 2008. From Russia’s point of view, US foreign policy focuses only on the preservation of their own interests. In light of this, although the SCO’s official position is non-military, it is considered to be opposing NATO. Conclusions of this study are as follows: First, global powers constantly expand their sphere of influence through assertive foreign policies. Second, the Cold War era has evolved into the present system without much change as international conflicts between great powers are covered by ideological rhetoric while premised upon economic, political and security priorities.
Although a general task of social science is to measure and predict change, international relations (IR) paradigms and theories have been unable to keep up with the rapid pace and destabilizing effects of change in international politics. When addressing Russia, IR’s “change problem” becomes clearer: the world’s largest country is treated as an object struggling to adjust to changes rather than a protagonist introducing them into the system. Yet, twice within the last quarter century, Russia has acted as a catalyst for changes in international politics that few saw coming and which confounded IR paradigms. The Soviet leadership’s decision to withdraw from the Cold War standoff and dismantle its empire in Eastern Europe was one of the most surprising events of the twentieth century. Russia’s interventions in Ukraine, Syria, and the 2016 US presidential elections have similarly caught most observers by surprise. IR theories have struggled to account for these actions and have not been able to integrate Soviet/Russian behavior into their larger understanding of change in international politics. Our underlying premise is to treat Russia (in both its Soviet and present-day incarnations) seriously as an agent of transformational change in international politics. Most theories that deal with transformational change focus on the effects of larger social and economic forces. However, change is seldom a smooth, linear process. Larger global forces may be operating, but individual agents catalyze changes produced by these deeper historical forces. What is needed to understand Russian foreign policy decision making is an evolutionary theory of change that is able to integrate historical (root) causes of change with proximate and contingent ones. In both cases examined in this paper, larger historical root causes push the international system toward change, but Russia’s status aspirations and status dissatisfaction have been the proximate causes catalyzing change.
The author argues that the current state of international relations can be characterized as a new Cold War with Eurasia emerging as its major battlefield and at the same time as a second, non-Western pole of a new confrontation. The reason for it is that the United States and some European countries are trying to reverse the decline of their dominance which they have enjoyed over the past five hundred years. The current situation is much more dangerous than it used to be during the previous Cold War, but this attempt will most likely prove futile. While the world comes through a period of intensifying competition, it will stimulate reformatting of the global geopolitical, geo-economic, and geo-ideological space. The authors assume that the evolution of the international system goes in the direction of a new bipolarity, where Eurasia will play a role of a new geostrategic and economic pole, while the West, probably limited by “Greater America” will become another one. In this new international reality, the U.S. will drift from the status of superpower to the position of an important global center of power. However, at the moment the contours of Greater Eurasia are only beginning to take shape.
Increased and diversified tensions in Russian-Western relations and first Russian-American relations are not only а result of propaganda pressure. They also reflex a number of conflicting realities of the contemporary system of international political and economic relations that involve Russia as an important player. The role of Russia is especially noticeable now that the process of development of the architecture of a new global system is underway. Hostile or confrontational position of Russia could be a major risk as well as a factor that can change the strategic context of the global competition. The emerging system looks much different from the one that formed the basis on which the world developed during the last 30 years. In that environment a potential hostile position of Russia is regarded as a major risk. But the active involvement of Russia into most important recent global economic and political developments prevents the situation of surpassing the limits of the «non-zero sum game»
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.