Health and health systems in the countries of the former Soviet Union
In the article on the materials of the author's research, the question of the attitude of small business employers to the health of their employees was considered and a conclusion was drawn that the lack of employers' desire to preserve this resource creates prerequisites for the growth of disability of workers in this sector of the economy
This paper investigates the effect of political regimes on healthcare outcomes with a novel approach. Instead of focusing on cross-country comparisons, like most studies do, we utilize the within-country variation of political regimes across individual regions. We use the case of the Russian Federation, where large sub-national differences exist in both health outcomes and political regimes in different provinces. General differences in sub-national politics in Russia have been subject of investigation of a large literature our paper adds to. The paper shows that the effect of political regimes on health is heterogeneous and depends on the type of health problems more salient for the region. More pluralist and competitive regimes are able to produce better results than the less competitive ones in rich regions, while in poor regions political pluralism and competition have an adverse impact on health.
Seventeen papers, originally presented at a conference held in honor of Erik Thorbecke at Cornell University in October 2003, highlight the depth and breadth of Thorbecke's influence in research and policy on poverty, inequality, and development. Papers discuss the growth and roots of Erik Thorbecke's career; the consistency of poverty lines; poverty indices; whether poverty and inequality measures should be combined; an approach to measuring health inequality in India; household investments in education and income inequality at the community level in Indonesia; poverty traps and safety nets; progress in the modeling of rural households' behavior under market failures; labor laws and labor welfare in the context of the Indian experience; macro models and multipliers; multiplier effects and the reduction of poverty; developing an accounting matrix for the euro area; globalization, economic reform, and structural price transmission--social accounting matrix decomposition techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam; institutions, factor endowment, and inequality in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal; an optimal nonlinear taxation approach combining incentives, inequality, and the allocation of aid when conditionality doesn't work; agricultural research and policy to achieve nutrition goals; and whether dualism is worth revisiting. No index.
The article analyzes the structure and dynamic of tobacco consumption in Russia in the period between 1994 and 2016. We rely on “Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics” (RLMS‑HSE) to assess tobacco consumption and smoking habits in various sociodemographic groups. As data shows, tobacco consumption went down in all those groups, with the notable exception of women, who tended to smoke more in 2016, compared to the previous years of observations. The age of the first cigarette use also dropped among women. Although there was little change in how much tobacco people consumed on a daily basis since 1994, the general preferences shifted. The number of people smoking filter tip cigarettes grew almost twofold, surging from 54 percent in 1994 to 95 percent in 2016. To further explore socio-economic factors of tobacco consumption, we estimate a regression model with a Heckman-type correction to attend to the sample selection bias. We use a probit regression model to explore which factors impact the decision to start smoking and, then, a linear regression model to assess the influence of various factors on the level of tobacco consumption. As our analysis shows, men are still more likely to start smoking than women. The high household income per capita and the high price of non-Russian brands of cigarettes decrease the likelihood of smoking initiation. Co-residing smokers, on the contrary, increase it. Men smoke on average more than women. Adults smoke more than teenagers and young adults (aged 16–24), and the elderly. Higher education and a relatively high level of life-satisfaction are associated with the lower levels of tobacco consumption, while the years of smoking have the reverse effect.
Presents a guide to the two health modules included in the World Bank's ADePT analysis software. Discusses what the ADePT health outcomes module does; data preparation; an example data set; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; technical notes; what the ADePT health financing module does; data preparation; example data sets; how to generate the tables and graphs; interpreting the tables and graphs; and technical notes. Index.
Attitudes are positive and negative evaluations of objects. Cognitive attitudes refer to judgments about objects, while affective attitudes refer to feelings towards objects. Studying cognitive and affective attitudes is important, because they impact health behaviors. However, people’s judgments and feelings about objects are sometimes mixed, positive and negative at the same time. This phenomenon – affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence – plays a moderating role in attitude-behavior link. It is already known that adolescents express attitudinal ambivalence towards risky behaviors (alcohol and substance misuse) and that impacts their behaviors. In present study we investigated attitudinal ambivalence towards wider range of health-related objects: risky behaviors, healthy behaviors, family and the self. Because attitudinal ambivalence may change over the course of a lifespan, in the present study it is investigated in developmental perspective. We compared affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence towards health-related objects among younger (11–14 y.o.) and older adolescents (15–16 y.o.). The following differences among adolescents were found. Compared to younger adolescents, older adolescents have more contradictory affective attitudes (coexistence of positive and negative feelings towards health-related objects). They hold more ambivalent affective attitudes towards risky behaviors and family in particular. However, no differences were found in cognitive attitudinal ambivalence (coexistence of contradictory judgments about health-related objects) between the two groups of adolescents. Both groups of adolescents have more contradictory feelings towards health-related objects, compared to contradictory judgments about these objects. Practical applications of these findings in preventive programs for healthy lifestyle are discussed.
The evaluation of health states is involved in a patient’s medical decision making. This evaluation includes cognitive and affective components. The affective component of this evaluation may include the emotion of fear. For instance, some health states are more frightening than others. However, it is not yet known why. The present study investigates the link between the fear of health impairments and individual value priorities. Participants evaluated 14 health impairments from most to least frightening and selected three valued goals which could be lost in the event of those previously evaluated health states. Participants also answered the Schwarz’s Values Survey. The results confirm that value preferences are related to the fear of different health states. From one side, this link is related to personal importance of value priorities: the most frightening health states are associated with the loss of preferred value goals. From another side, this link is related to value types: the more a health state is associated with a loss of security and self-direction, the more frightening it is; the more a health state is associated with a loss of hedonism and universalism, the less frightening it is. Overall, the study showed that affective evaluation of negative health states, particularly, fear of negative health states, is related to value preferences.
The monograph is devoted to the assessment of population health indicators and comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing on the health of indigenous people of Russian North.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.