Geographical diversity of cause–of–death patterns and trends in Russia
The article is devoted to problems in analysis of demographic processes, include the results of research of the dynamics of the main causes of death and analysis of fatigue function for different population group of the metropolitan area.
More than half of all deaths in Russia in 2011-2014 were subjected to pathologic or forensic autopsy, as a result of which the cause of death was not identified for 3.8 percent of the cases. More than 147,000 unproductive autopsies which left the cause of death unknown were carried out. Such a large number of cases cannot be explained by the state of the cadavers at the moment of the autopsy. Another 161,000 deaths (4.1% of autopsies) were classified as events of undetermined intent. This paper attempts to find a rational explanation for such a high proportion of uncertain autopsy conclusions concerning the cause of death. The methods applied include an analysis at the macro-level (regions), with the help of factor analysis and clustering techniques, and multinomial logistic regression at the micro-level, using anonymous individual records. The study is based entirely on Russian state statistics data. There are large interregional differences in the practices of determining the cause of death based on autopsy. Practices of diagnosing external causes also vary greatly by region. In regions where the proportion of unspecified causes is higher, the share of events of undetermined intent is also higher. These differences are not connected with the peculiarities of mortality in each region. The analysis suggests that the large number of cases in which the cause of death remains unknown after an autopsy is due to the lack of incentives to clarify the cause of death after the issuance of the preliminary medical death certificate. Moreover, the existing system of relations between forensic bureaus and law-enforcement agencies makes no provision for apprising forensics experts of the final conclusions concerning the external causes of death. From 2011 to 2014 the number of forensic autopsies of persons who had died from disease increased by 20 percent, but there are doubts that the information obtained as a result of the autopsies is effectively used by the health care system.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.