Rhyme in European Verse: A Case for Quantitative Historical Poetics.
This article is dedicated to the influence of Heinrich Heine on the poetry of Vladislav Khodasevich. Although for Khodasevich the Russian literary tradition was more important than the European tradition, in his lyric poetry tangible influence of Heine’s poetry can be found. However, links to Heine in Khodasevich’s early poetry can be characterized as superficial and are manifested in either in ironic depictions of love (“Verses about a Cousin”) or for the description of a stylized German city (“In a German Small Town”). In the poetry collection The Heavy Lyre (1922) the assimilation of Heine is deeper. Khodasevich on the one hand develops scathing irony after the fashion of Heine (“Gisele”), and, on the other hand he adopts Heine’s romantic treatment of love themes (“The Wanderer Passed, Leaning on his Staff”). There is a proximity within the framework of the book of a sense of a unity of two thematically similar love poems, which treat the theme of love in opposing ways — ironically and romantically. These are modalities that are probably the result of the influence of Heine. This does not annul the reworking of a range of Heine’s themes in such poems as “To Anyuta,” “Evidence,” and “The Star Shines, the Ether Trembles”. The outlines of a new stage of Khodasevich’s assimilation of Heine’ occur in the former’s emigration. Alongside “Ballad” this trend can be noted in in the poem “The Old Man and the Hunchback Girl,” in which the poetics take on characteristics of German poetry in general, and Heine’s poetry more particularly. Together with this, Heine’s influence here makes complicates the thematic influence of German expressionists. This new satirical and social adoption of the German poet failed to find its development in Khodasevich’s work and in his poetry written in emigration we do not find any more references to Heine. In regards to German expressionists, evidently Khodasevich, to some extent, experienced the influence of their poetry. However one cannot interpret this as fundamental to his work.
The paper looks at the aesthetics and at the theory of one of the key figures of French Symbolism, Stéphane Mallarmé, who largely determined the future development of Europeen poetry
This article examines the historical creation of the Blaise Pascal's "Provincial Letters, and their use of comic devices. Judging by their content, characters, and general pathos, the "Provincial Letters"are closest of all to the tradition of "Menippean satire". The two are united by the presence of the Jesuits as target, the aim to influence the doubting reader, the devices of burlesque, pun, comic scenarios and speech, and the combinations of genres and languages. In the architectonics of the "Provincial Letters", a special position is occupied by the 11th letter, the primary theme of which is the justification of the moking and ironic relationship toward delusion. Pascal points at the important position that irony and laughter occupy in the tradition of the Church. In addition, "wicked laughter" - the antidote for moral depravity - becomes the exception in the Christian " laughing world" of Pascal, which "banishes" wicked irony, exchanging it for the smile of the wiseman in the "Thoughts".
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management