Grammaticalization of new cases in Beserman Udmurt
The paper gives a detailed description of seven spatial nominal cases in the Beserman dialect of Udmurt, which do not exist in the literary language, namely, six personal local cases and the recessive. These cases are not fully grammaticalized and exhibit some properties rather more characteristic of relational nouns, which is their grammaticalization source. Moreover, we show that the approximative also shares some of these properties. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that the aforementioned units have enough case-like properties to be treated as (undergrammaticalized) cases. The study is based on our own field data collected in Udmurtia in 2010-2016.
Im Beitrag wird die Regelung der Abfolge von althochdeutschen schwachbetonten Wörtern ProNom.> ProRefl.> ProDat.> ProAkk.> ProGen.> (Adv) behandelt, die den Sequenzbeschränkungen für Klitika sehr nahe steht. An Beispielsätzen aus Otfrid wird das Zusammenspiel der Faktoren aufgedeckt, die das widersprüchliche Verhalten der Blockmitspieler und Schwankungen in der Wortstellung beeinflussen (phonetisch abgeschwächt ~ phonetisch gewichtig /gereimt, desemantisiert ~ vollwertig beziehungsweise fokussiert, kasusgerechte Abfolge ~ Abfolge nach semantischen Rollen u.a.). Die althochdeutschen Sequenzbeschränkungen werden als eine Etappe der Grammatikalisierung von Vollwörtern zu Klitika eingeordnet, die einen Einblick in die möglichen Mechanismen des diachronen Wandels liefert.
Semantic roles have continued to intrigue the linguists for more than four decades now, starting with determining their kind and number, with their morphological expression, and with their interaction with argument structure and syntax. The focus in this volume is on typological and historical issues. The papers focus on the cross-linguistic identification of semantic-role equivalents, on the regularity of, and exceptions concerning change and grammaticalization in semantic roles, the variation in encoding the roles of direction and experiencer in specific languages, presenting evidence for identifying a new semantic role of speech addressee in Caucasian languages, on semantic roles in word formation, and finally a cross-linguistic comparison of the functions and the grammaticalization of the ethical dative in some Indo-European languages. The book will be of interest to anyone involved with case and semantic roles, with the syntax semantic interface, and with semantic change an grammaticalization.
This article analyses the semantics and syntactic behaviour of the Old High German and Old Saxon pronominal adverb thâr (“there”), the morphological status of which is often equated with the status of the West Germanic relative particle *þe in relative clauses. OS thâr has a syntactic autonomy and a consistent deictic role in the opposition with hêr (“here”), whereas OHG thâr shows a partial loss of its deictic role in relative clauses, a growing syntactic dependence and the formation of a complex structure in conjunction with the relative pronoun. These changes are interpreted as a change from a discourse element to a sentence element and as the beginnings of grammaticalisation in the direction ‘main word’ > ‘auxiliary word’.
The paper describes Kalmyk complex predicates, based on the empirical data of linguistic fieldwork. The focus of this investigation is on the semantics and morphosyntactic properties of the complex predicates in Kalmyk. In Kalmyk, several auxiliaries (bää‑ ‘to be’, jov‑ ‘to go’, kevt‑ ‘to lie’ and suu‑ ‘to sit’) belong to the imperfective domain. Perfective semantics is the basis for complex predicates with the primary verbs ork‑ ‘to put’ and od‑ ‘to go away’, whereas the verbs av‑ ‘to take’ and ög‑ ‘to give’ express reflexive benefactive and benefactive meanings. The verb xaj‑ ‘to throw’ expresses intensivity and pluractionality. The study shows that the Kalmyk aspectual system arose as a result of grammaticalization.
This research studies the influence of professional competence of EFL learners on their metaphor production. The task was approached through analyzing metaphors in the English written texts produced by Russian students with different competence in economics – the non-professional and professional competence level. Findings highlight similarities and divergence of metaphor use in L2 writing in terms of learners’ professional competence. The results of comparative analysis of specific features in metaphors produced at different professional competence levels reveal the quantitative and qualitative differences of what functions metaphors are used to perform and to what extent they are used accurately. With the shift from the non-professional to the professional competence level learners are able to use metaphors that combine a function of presenting abstract concepts with a discourse organising function in a more balanced way and make much more use of creative metaphors, and their metaphor production tends to be less influenced by L1 background. Practical recommendations suggest an improved research methodology for studying metaphor production in ESAP as well as a deeper understanding of ESP content and its structure.