Unraveling ethnic density effects, acculturation and adjustment: The case of Russian-speaking immigrants from the former Soviet Union
There has been limited advancement in the empirical literature unpacking the ethnic density effect, a social ecological phenomenon that may help explain some of the conflicting findings in bidimensional acculturation research. In this study, we developed a brief measure of perceived ethnic density in a community sample of Russian‐speaking immigrants (N = 269) in Montreal, Canada, finding it to be a superior predictor of distress to objective linguistic density. Acquiring social support partly mediated the relation between perceived ethnic density and lower distress. Furthermore, the relation between heritage acculturation and distress was double moderated by perceived ethnic density and time lived in the neighborhood. A person–ecology match involving heritage acculturation and ethnic density was related to better psychological adjustment for participants who had resided in their neighborhood for less than, but …
Despite large waves of westward migration, little is known about how to adapt services to assist Russian-speaking immigrants. In an attempt to bridge the scientist-practitioner gap, the current review synthesizes diverse literatures regarding what is known about immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.
Relevant empirical studies and reviews from cross-cultural and cultural psychology, sociology, psychiatric epidemiology, mental health, management, linguistics, history, and anthropology literature were synthesized into three broad topics: culture of origin issues, common psychosocial challenges, and clinical recommendations.
Russian speakers probably differ in their form of collectivism, gender relations, emotion norms, social support, and parenting styles from what many clinicians are familiar with and exhibit an apparent paradoxical mix of modern and traditional values. While some immigrant groups from the Former Soviet Union are adjusting well, others have shown elevated levels of depression, somatization, and alcoholism, which can inform cultural adaptations.
Testable assessment and therapy adaptations for Russians were outlined based on integrating clinical and cultural psychology perspectives.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
Nowadays, the NearNorth of Russia undergoes a fateful epoch. The processes of destruction of the old world order in economic, social and cultural relations is not only continuing, but increasing its pace. The omnipresent destruction is manifested through the depopulation of villages and small towns, further decline in agricultural production, "consolidation" (actually closing) of educational institutions and health care centers, and the degradation of infrastructure. The compressed social space of the Middle North of Russia is shrinking in concentric circles around the regional centers, increasing the vastness of social vacuum and the white space, with the latter being gradually occupied by the mutating natural forms. In addition, yet another (opposite) trend can be identified. It is associated with the escalation of migration amongst the dwellers of the large cities, especially megalopolises, to rural areas.
Extensive development of Russian cities, especially Moscow and St. Petersburg, has revealed serious social problems that had previously not been fully taken into account. In particular, the rapid escalation and exacerbation of social problems determine the quality of life in cities. From one perspective, Moscow and St. Petersburg are represented as thriving metropolises possessing a whole set of such social attractors as rich and comfortable residential buildings, shopping malls with international brands, best restaurants, medical facilities and other requisites of the upper classes. However, parallel to these features, the quality of life in metropolitan areas is determined by such parameters as the deteriorating environmental conditions, increase in street (and other types of) crime, unsolvable traffic conditions which reduce inner-city mobility to a minimum, and the decline of anti-terrorist security.
In the Middle North of Russia, especially in the Kostroma region, one particular trend became evident: there has been a transition from the seasonal migration to dachas towards the ‘settled’ migration related not only to the summer recreation, but also to the industrial activity in the framework of modern technologies. Specifically, modern forms of labor in the field of information technology were initially (and still remain to be) exterritorial in nature. Those working with data tend to be indifferent to the location of their job – what is important to them is a point of connection to the network and a portal for entry into hyperspace.
This book advances a social-ecological theory to reconnect nature and society through sustainable transformation of interacting social and ecological systems. Social ecology develops as an interdisciplinary science by using knowledge from the social sciences, especially sociology and economics, and from natural-scientific ecology. Knowledge integration across the boundaries of social and natural sciences is not widespread, blocked by the specialisation of theories and their competing forms of explanation and interpretation. Chapters in this book describe a new social-ecological theory that connects concepts and theories from both sides to create a new interdisciplinary theory. Inter- and transdisciplinary knowledge synthesis creates possibilities to analyse global environmental problems more systematically by integrating specialized research on environmental problems. The author uses social-ecological theory to analyse and explain problems and processes of global change in modern society such as climate change and adaptation to it, ecosystem change, and transformation of the industrial energy regime, finally offering pathways of transformation to a future sustainable society.
Ecological factors in psychological acculturation research are often neglected, although recent work suggests that context and acculturation may interact in predicting adaptation outcomes. The ethnic density effect–the protective effect related to a greater proportion of people from the same ethnic group living in a particular neighborhood–might be one such ecological candidate. The current study integrates these constructs by unpacking the perceived ethnic density effect and examining how it is related to acculturation in a diverse sample (N = 146) of immigrant students in Montreal, Canada. It was found that the negative relation between perceived ethnic density and depression was mediated by discrimination but not by social support. Furthermore, a crossover interaction indicated that heritage acculturation was protective against depression for those residing in ethnically concentrated neighborhoods but not for …
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.