Charge transfer mechanism in nonstationary granular systems
We consider a nonstationary array of conductors, connected by resistances that fluctuate with time. The charge transfer between a particular pair of conductors is supposed to be dominated by electrical breakdowns—the moments when the corresponding resistance is close to zero. An amount of charge, transferred during a particular breakdown, is controlled by the condition of minimum for the electrostatic energy of the system. We find the conductivity, relaxation rate, and fluctuations for such a system within the classical approximation, valid, if the typical transferred charge is large compared to e . We discuss possible realizations of the model for colloidal systems and arrays of polymer-linked grains.
We study analytically and numerically the distribution of granular temperatures in granular mixtures for different dissipation mechanisms of inelastic inter-particle collisions. Both driven and force-free systems are analyzed. We demonstrate that the simplified model of a constant restitution coefficient fails to predict even qualitatively a granular temperature distribution in a homogeneous cooling state. At the same time we reveal for driven systems a stunning result – the distribution of temperatures in granular mixtures is universal. That is, it does not depend on a particular dissipation mechanism of inter-particles collisions, provided the size distributions of particles is steep enough. The results of the analytic theory are compared with simulation results obtained by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). The agreement between the theory and simulations is perfect. The reported results may have important consequences for fundamental science as well as for numerous application, e.g. for the experimental modelling in a lab of natural processes.
We investigate numerically and analytically size-polydisperse granular mixtures immersed into a molecular gas. We show that the equipartition of granular temperatures of particles of different sizes is established; however, the granular temperatures significantly differ from the temperature of the molecular gas. This result is surprising since, generally, the energy equipartition is strongly violated in driven granular mixtures. Qualitatively, the obtained results do not depend on the collision model, being valid for a constant restitution coefficient ɛ, as well as for the ɛ for viscoelastic particles. Our findings may be important for astrophysical applications, such as protoplanetary disks, interstellar dust clouds, and comets .
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.