Сексуальное поведение 15-летних подростков по данным международного исследования
Purpose: This is the first empirical study of the effectiveness of the international volunteer program “dance4life” in Russia. The program addresses taboos, stigma, discrimination, HIV/AIDS prevention, promoting Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), healthy lifestyle among adolescents/youth. The program uses the “edutainment” model that allows involving youth more meaningfully through music, dance and youth icons. Educated volunteers provide schoolchildren with comprehensive information on SRHR and organize practical application of the life and leadership skills. The program cycle ends with rewarding celebration event for children involved.
Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The qualitative research involved youth aged 13-19 (20 interviews, 6 focus groups), teachers (8 interviews), volunteer team members (8 interviews), and program managers in 4 regions (5 interviews). In quantitative research 105 respondents took part, of which 48% were 13-16 year old, 44% - 17-19, 8% - 20-23, both boys and girls.
Findings: Young people’s participation in dance4life had significant positive impact on perception of SRHR and knowledge level; it changed some misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and helped develop social and healthy lifestyle skills. The program contributed to the growth of voluntary activity and organizational skills of youth. Perception of SRHR by teachers positively changed due to their participation in the program.
Limitations: The limitations of the quantitative research sample (N = 105) does not allow us to disaggregate the data by region or by gender. These limitations were minimized by choosing relatively comparable socio-economic status of the 4 regions and through quota sampling in equal proportions for boys and girls. This study was conducted for the first time, so it is not possible to draw conclusions about the impact of the program in the long run.
Practical implications: The short implementation period allows for the dissemination of information and training to large numbers without much funding.
Social implications: The dance4life approach uses a special way of providing information on SRHR to youth, which rouses their interest and is perceived as relevant and important. Program participants use this information themselves and share it with their friends, parents and other adults.
Originality: The dance4life program is unique for Russia, there is no regular sexual education in Russian schools. School programs are rarely evaluated with the methods used in this study.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.