Политика управления. Руководители считают, что родители выбирают школу по учебным результатам, но семью больше беспокоят условия обучения
In this article, we demonstrate the size of family background eff ects in various regions of Russia and Estonia, concentrating on urban and rural diff erences, addressing the idea that the family background effect is moderated by school level admission policies. Having common path-dependent educational institutions from the communist period, the countries diff er in both the extensiveness of the welfare state and system level school choice policies. However, we see many commonalities in both systems, especially at the urban school level. The family background eff ect is defi ned as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income and social status. In operationalising family background, the number of books at home and parental education are used as proxies, and its eff ect is measured as a percentage of the individual level PISA 2012 score. We contribute to the literature by studying school choice, its key characteristics and moderating eff ects by school level admission policy in an urban environment.
In the article we suggest a method for analyzing situations of choice, which is novel for sociology - the method of conditional decision trees. We describe the logic of the method, applying it to the case of parental choice of school in two urban districts of Saint-Petersburg. We show that decision trees work well for detecting groups that follow different decision making strategies. This can be an efficient tool for modeling and interpretation of the logic of choice. The method outperforms the traditional modeling by means of logistic regression, as it allows for assessing homogeneity of preferences (choices) of the groups detected, instead of simply finding the key factors related to choice. We recommend combining regression analysis with decision trees modeling in all kinds of academic and applied research studying complicated choices.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.