О некоторых тенденциях лексических изменений в современном английском языке
The article presents a short comparative analysis of British linguists' views on lexical changes in modern English. The concept of its monolithic entity and language purism conflict with the outlook on language as a dynamically developing structure. Information technologies, globalization, cultural evolution, military and political events of global concern bring about lexical-semantic changes in the English language word stock and vocabulary update which is substantiated by an array of sentences derived from the Guardian.
The Problem of Structural Change in an Endangered Language
Due to the ongoing process of rapid decrease in the number of spoken languages, the most important task of linguistics today is to document and describe endangered languages. Among issues associated with endangered languages one of the most linguistically significant is structural changes taking place in such languages. The general question is: what is going on with phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary of an endangered language? Studying changes which take place in endangered languages, one should distinguish between those which are caused by internal factors and those caused by extralinguistic factors. For example, innovations which appear by analogy or due to contamination are found in any language and should not necessarily be caused by insufficient language competence. On the other hand, the rapid increase in the number of such forms and in the frequency of free variation (in morphology the situation when the same grammatical meaning is expressed by several forms which are interchangeable and occur without any regularity) may be caused by certain external factors. The paper describes linguistic situation in the village of Gammalsvenskby, Ukraine, where a Scandinavian dialect is preserved by a number of elderly people. This dialect is represented by several varieties, which are accounted for by different levels of language competence of its speakers. The main types of speakers of endangered languages, distinguished on the basis of the language competence, are fluent speakers, semi-speakers, terminal speakers; all these types are present in Gammalsvenskby. The dialect should not be likened to a uniform standard language, and its description should not be restricted to the most conservative variety. This variety serves as a starting point in the research, while material obtained from less conservative speakers provides opportunity for comparison and allows us to study structural changes taking place in the dialect. The paper discusses examples of change in the following segments of morphology: personal pronouns, infinitive and present tense of weak verbs of types 1a and 1b, imperative; some characteristics of the vocabulary are examined as well. The basic feature of the less conservative speakers is high frequency of free variation. Free variation exists in the conservative variety of the dialect as well. However, the 17 occurrence of forms there is quite predictable, whereas the occurrence of forms in the speech of less conservative speakers becomes unpredictable. Besides, not only does the number of forms not decrease, it increases. Despite the diversity of variation, only a limited number of morphemes take part in it. In the present tense the following endings take part in the variation: -r, -ar, -är, -a, -Ø. All these endings occur in the conservative variety as well and are not specific to any group of the speakers. The list of basic morphemes is restricted, which allows us to speak of the varieties of the same dialect, not of different dialects.
the article deals with the theoretical aspects of languages for specific purposes (LSP). Subjected to analysis are the phonetic, lexical, grammatical and functional properties of Languages for Specific Purposes.
Analysis of the current situation in the sphere of the present-day scientific discourse in national languages demonstrates the significance of describing the actual state of language in-depth not merely for identification of normative values, but for prediction of development trends as well. The paper is an effort to describe and analyze some features of the present-day professional scientific communication, which affect directly the development both of the language of the German linguistics, in particular, and the language of the German science as a whole.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.