"Всеблажайший изрядного тщания труд": у истоков трудовой этики староверов
In the course of birth and germination of the labour ethics of the early oldbelievers as it is proved by the analysis of the Vyg commune materials – the largest oldbelievers center of the 18th century first half – was overcame the traditionalist attitude towards labour only as naturally occurring man’s obligation and punishment for the sins. Was formed a mental concept of “good intention labour” under which the labour was presented as a soul saving Christian deed. The condition for such evaluation was the consecration of labour results to the oldbelievers’ commune. The main objective of the concept was the preservation of the “true belief”, ensuring the commune survival under severe conditions of the Russian North and persecutions. Such labour ethics, which is more characteristic for the New Times, was formed under the influence of different factors’ complex, among which the hypertrophic eschatological attitude of the oldbelievers was of great importance, same as at the West in a certain historic period, what helped to overcome the traditionalism routine.
In the article political views and political activities of Old Believers of the main soglasiyas (denominations) in 1917 are analyzed. Being till March 1917 on monarchist positions, after Nikolay's renunciation Old Believers supported Provisional government with enthusiasm, with mistrust having treated Soviets and revolutionary parties. They considered that the Provisional government is legitimate, and socialists "sow a distemper" and "excesses". The attitude towards Bolsheviks and personally to Lenin, Trotsky and other heads parties which were considered as the German agents was especially negative. Old Believers, having had all freedoms and opportunities, developed vigorous confessional activity. Also, having combined efforts of almost all soglasias, they developed the uniform Political program, including, for participation in the Constituent assembly. On the major questions the program was close to the cadet, but chiliastic colored. A part of Old Belief peasants did not support her. October events were apprehended by Old Believers as "scourge of God". However they did not take any actions, hoping for the Constituent assembly which was given sacral character.
The research is devoted to confessional-ethical factors of Old Believers entrepreneurship in Russia at the end of 17th 19th centuries. In the pioneer study are identified and analyzed confessional values, moral institutions and aims of Old Believers, which advanced their effective entrepreneurship (devotion to labor, notion of property, entrepreneurship and etc.) Is scrutinized the formed ethics of Old Believers economic activity. Conclusion is done about the transformation of Old Belief to a confessional-economical community, which development represented a non-etatist modernization alternative to the state one.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
In the article is analyzed the use of corruption by the old believers in Russia in the 18 – first part of the 19th century to counteract the repressive tendencies of the state politics towards the old belief, to preserve and strengthen the old believers communities. The author makes a conclusion on the meditative character of such a defensive-corruption system, which was salving the negative sides of the state politics and was ensuring further development of old believers entrepreneurship.
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
Article is devoted to Old Belief history in the years of World War I. Evolution of a political position of Old Believers in 1914-1917 is considered. Also features of the charity of Old Believers which had mass character are revealed.
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.
The factors of territorial placement of the Old Believe centers in late 18th - to the first half of the 19th century, moved from the periphery to Moscow and Petersburg, the largest commerce and industry enclaves of the European Russia come to light in the article. Under the influence of social cultural tradition and the spiritual concept released from etatism "Moscow – the Third Rome" Moscow became the main confessional center of leading denominations.