Долгосрочные социально-экономические вызовы для России как факторы спроса на новые технологии
The article discusses the importance of the implementation of educational programs for pre-school children to study the basics of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM-knowledge), as the scientific basis of development in today’s world of technological transition. Overview of the current situation in preschool education shows that STEM-knowledge gives preschoolers great potential for further development in primary and secondary schools. Studies also show that boys are more likely to acquire a better knowledge of mathematics and engineering sciences, which — to a certain extent — is determined by the teachers and pupils gender stereotypes concerning pre-school education. The article deals with the subject of STEM-knowledge for preschool children and the gender dimensions of its successful teaching. The two important parts of education policy should be implemented: development of pre-service activities or teacher training on gender analysis in STEM-programs and wider spreading of STEM-knowledge in the municipal kindergartens. Knowledge of gender differences should not lead to the development of gender dichotomy in education; on the contrary, it should lead to equal access of children to knowledge by developing motivation and positive attitudes of boys and girls to STEM-knowledge. The high importance of STEM-education is based on the fact that new information technologies and scientific approach encompass any professional activity and even everyday life of modern man.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.