Особенности контрактных отношений в сфере торговли и их влияние на положение поставщиков и розничных сетей
Conflicts between Russian retailers and their vendors are often attributed to retailers’ market power execution and vendors’ discrimination. The same logic is used to evaluate some of the contract terms such as promo-activity cost-sharing, retailers’ marketing services, bonuses and diverse discounts. In the article authors try to show that general Russian legislation principles and norms of contractual agreements in the sector are already affecting significantly different cost components of both vendors and retailers, increasing the probability of conflicts between contract parties and also complicating the conflicts’ mitigation methods; as well as driving negative society perception of some contract terms. Norms of well-known “Trade” law are regarded convergent with the general approach to contractual agreements regulation, especially in the key aspect of that – almost full ignorance of strategic nature of retailer–vendor relationships and close interconnection between different instruments used in contract practice.
The article is devoted to Category Management evolution from the basic knowledge to 3.0 level.
We combine spatial and monopolistic competition to study market interactions between downtown retailers and an outlying shopping mall. Consumers shop at either one marketplace or at both, and buy each variety in volume. The market solution stems from the interplay between the market expansion effect generated by consumers seeking more opportunities, and the competition effect. Firms' profits increase (decrease) with the entry of local competitors when the former (latter) dominates. Downtown retailers vanish swiftly when the mall is large. A predatory but efficient mall need not be regulated, whereas the regulator must restrict the size of a mall accommodating downtown retailers.
The Law ‘On Trade’, adopted in the Russian Federation at the end of 2009, introduced a set of rules that regulate the terms of contracts between food suppliers and retail chains. The legal requirements are very different to any regulations employed in other countries (including the Grocery Supply Code of Practice ((“GSCOP”) in the United Kingdom) but, at the same time, they use many concepts developed by economics and expressed both in competition policy and antitrust legislation. The new rules are being actively enforced by the Russian competition agency and provide a significant impact on contracting practices in retailing. At the same time results of many surveys as well as expert estimates show that the proclaimed goal of the law—that is, the redistribution of surplus in the supplier-retailer relationship in favor of the supplier—has not been achieved.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.