The collection of materials of the all-Russian conference is devoted to topical issues classical and modern philosophy aimed at solving practice-oriented problems: social, political, ethical, cognitive, educational, etc. Special attention is paid to the study of philosophical aspects of the development of information society, media culture, virtualization of human lifestyle. Presented research in the field of philosophy of culture and religion related to the study of security risks man in the socio-cultural space. The problems of modern philosophy are touched upon education, including the problems of open distance learning, innovative methods and practices. The conference was held at Astrakhan state University with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for basic research.
The article deals with the reflection of the feminist linguistic tendencies in the contemporary German language. It describes the ways of avoiding gender asymmetry thus promoting men’s and women’s equality of rights not only in the society but also in the language. The most wide-spread methods are the explicit naming of both genders (full and contracted), as well as the use of neutral forms, acting as substitutes (substantivized participles and adjectives in the Plural, compound words, abstract nouns). All the periodicals showed the considerable increase in the use of feminine gender nouns denoting the professions which were formerly considered as mainly masculine ones. These nouns are basically formed by adding of the suffix -in (Kanzlerin, Ministerin) and the semi-suffix -frau (Kauffrau, Zeitungsfrau). The article also examines the guidelines offered by the dictionaries of Duden publishing house on how to use the non-sexist forms in the normative German language. The research was done as exemplified in the German-language magazines (political, scientific, feminist) published in Germany from 2003 to 2013. The findings demonstrated the inconsistent use of non-sexist forms over the last decade; moreover, the Duden Dictionary guidelines were often ignored. It is explained by the negligent attitude of the authors and editors to the requirements of the feminist linguistics.
In the article is analyzed the character of presence of Political in Edmund Husserl's phenomenology. In the course of reconsideration of the criticism, voiced in the works by Friedrich Fellmann, Hannah Arendt and Jürgen Habermas, author finds the strengths and weaknesses of this criticism, as well as reveals the conceptual foundations and content of the political dimension in Husserl's phenomenology. Herewith, the focus is on the theory of intersubjectivity and theory of lifeworld, which constitute the conceptual core of Husserl's phenomenological research on social, ethical and political issues. The reconsideration of Fellmann's criticism is based on the consideration of the character of presence of the political dimension in intellectual and biographical heritage Husserl's. In the analysis of Arendt's criticism author puts forward the thesis about the existence of two theories of intersubjectivity in Husserl's phenomenology: theory of the constitution of alter ego in the “primordial world” by “analogizingtransfer” and theory based on the doctrine of “primary Me”, mutual constitution and on the analyses of passive genesis. The problematization of Habermas ' criticism is based on the rethinking of the place and importance of practical philosophy in Husserl's phenomenology, as well as on the identification of the heuristic potential of the lifeworld concept's for the construction of social and political theory. Based on the philosophy of the state, reconstructed by Karl Schuhmann on the materials of Husserl's heritage, author explicates the key prerequisites, ideas and terms, constitutive for the political dimension of Husserl's phenomenology and essential for its understanding in historic-philosophical and modern contexts. The results of the analysis contribute to a more adequate understanding of the nature of the political problematic in Huserl’s phenomenology.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.